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The Author has had a two-fold object in view in preparing this 
volume. He has aimed at making it a manual of general information, 
for those who have not time or opportunity to consult larger works ; 
and a book of reference, for those who wish to study the earlier 
history of the Missions, of which it was his privilege to be a pioneer. 

He has endeavored, therefore, to present a portion of the invaluable 
materials, which are found in the writings of Sir William Jones, 
Colebrooke, Malcolm, Elphinstone, and other authors, and at the 
same time to give the results of his own observation, during a journey 
extending to Labor, the capital of the late kingdom of the Sikhs, 
and a residence of some months in the Himalaya mountains ; 
interweaving these with the thread of his own narrative. 

The Author's compensation for this work, a percentage on its sales, 
is devoted to the support of the Missions which are treated of in these 

New York, August, 1850. 

The Map accompanying this book has been engraved to show the 
Missionary Stations in India, nearly all of which are designated. 
They are printed in Roman letter, thus : Labor •. Other places, of 
which but few are inserted, are printed in Italic, as Ajmeer o. 

Sir William Jones's system has been commonly followed in writing 
Hindu names. It suits well the native orthography ; but the English 
reader should note that it requires the short a to be pronounced like 
u, or like the last a in America ; and the long i, like ee, or like i in 
Machine. Thus Panjab is pronounced as if written Punjab ; Ranjil, 
Runjeet ; Pandit, Pundit, &c. 



Voyage to Calcutta, ..... 


India and the Hindus, .... 


The Hindds— continued, .... 


Choice of a Missionary Field, 


Events at Calcutta, 


Joumey to Lodiana — Voyage on the Ganges, 


Voyage on the Ganges continued, 


Joomey to Lodiana continued, . 


Events at Lodiana, 




Tour to Lahor, ....... i42 


Tour to Lcihor — Ranjit Singli, . . . . . . 163 


Ranjit Singh— The Pan>b and the Sikhs . . . - 181 


Lodiana to Simla — The Protected Hill States, . . . 199 


Lodiana to New York, . . . i . . . 228 


The Present Condition of the Missions, .... 239 


General Considerations, . 249 

Appendix, . 26J 




J^arting with friends — The voyage ; a Sabbath — Madeira ; beautiful 
sight ; Romanist religion — Winds and weather ; storm off the 
Cape — Sand Heads ; Sagor ; Natives — Scenery on the Hoogley — 
Reach Calcutta. 

On Wednesday, the 29th of May, 1833, we left 
Philadelphia to join the ship Star, lying in the Dela- 
ware near New Castle^ bound to Calcutta. Our 
company consisted of the Rev. William Reed, 
myself, and our v^ives. A few near relatives and 
friends went with us to New Castle, to see us em- 
bark. The afternoon was dark and rainy ; but if we 
had been superstitiously inclined, we could not long 
have indulged forebodings of evil, for before sunset 
the heavy clouds of the western sky parted, and the 
sun shone out clearly, painting a splendid rainbow 
in the departing showers — a bright omen, we trusted, 
that God, who is ever faithful to his promise, would 



graciously vouchsafe to us his protection. Early 
next morning we went on board. 

I do not propose to give a minute sketch of the 
incidents of our wslj, and I therefore forbear attempt- 
ing to describe our last parting, as we supposed, and 
as it proved to some of our number, with the friends 
who had accompanied us. When we looked on a 
father, a brother, and other friends, going from our 
vessel in their little boat to the shore, and saw their 
faces not less pale than our own with deep emotion, 
we could hardly believe that the hour of parting at 
death itself would be more trying. These separa- 
tions can be fully understood only by those who 
have met with them. In one respect they are pecu- 
liarly painful ; they are not relieved by the prospect 
of soon meeting again. Other persons leave homes 
and friends not less beloved ; but they do not ex- 
pect to spend all their days in a foreign country. 
Commonly their absence extends but to a few years. 
The evening of life, at any rate, and its noon also, 
they hope to spend at home amongst their early 
friends. This hope is rarely enjoyed by those who 
go abroad as missionaries. Their duties cannot be 
readily laid aside, nor often transferred to other 
laborers. The longer they live among the heathen, 
if their spirit and deportment have been worthy of 
their object, the greater will be their influence over 
them, and the stronger the reasons for remaining 
amongst them. The considerations of health and 
longer life, especially when their field of labor is 
within the tropics ; the happy results of intercourse 



with their friends and the churches ; and other 
reasons, would probably render it expedient for them 
to return to their native country on a visit, after a 
period of ten or twelve years ; but the work to which 
they have consecrated themselves is a work for life, 
and one from which they cannot withdraw, so long 
as they can be usefully employed in it. They 
require, therefore, that faith which is " the substance 
of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen." 
This will keep them from being unduly " mindful of 
that country from whence they came out and it 
will cheer them with the hope of " a better country, 
that is, an heavenly." 

Our voyage was not marked by any occurrence 
of special interest. Vessels in the East India trade 
commonly carry out Httle freight, and having plenty 
of room, and being well found, they afford comfort- 
able accommodations. The length of the voyage 
depends on the time of the year, speed of the ship, 
and other common contingencies ; four months may 
be stated as an average time of making the passage. 
In so long a voyage the time often passes tediously, 
and many persons give way to indolent habits and 
to impatience, if not to worse traits of temper ; but 
if the weather permits, as during much of the way 
it will, the passenger has much time for reading and 
writing, and the missionary will endeavor to improve 
this long season of leisure as a Sabbath, invaluable 
for its rest from the excitement and distraction of 
leaving his friends and country, and not less to be 
prized as a time of thoughtful preparation for the 



new course of life, on whose active duties he is soon 
to enter. With a few chosen books at hand, much 
time for reflection and devotional duties, and fre- 
quent conversations with his companions, it will be 
greatly his own fault if the voyage do not prove one 
of the best spent periods of his life. So we trust it 
was to us. Sea-sickness, the most disagreeable of 
all complaints, was in due time succeeded by excel- 
lent health, excepting to one of our number, whose 
hope of enjoying good health seemed to depend on 
her Hving in a milder climate. We all enjoyed 
good spirits, and were able to make a good use of 
our time. 

Departing from the usual route, we reached the 
island of Madeira on the 24th of June. We made 
the island on Sunday, and were becalmed within a 
few miles of the shore, the winds having agreed to 
keep the Sabbath, as one of the ladies remarked, and 
we were thus spared the confusion of going into port 
on that holy day. Seldom had we seen a more 
beautiful sight, than when looking from the decks of 
our ship at the side of the green mountain island 
opposite to us. The summits were lost in the 
clouds, but the lower parts of the island were 
covered with terraced vineyards, and dotted over 
with cottages that seemed the abodes of innocence 
and contentment. The day happened to be one of 
the chief Romanist festivals, and in the evening 
lights were kindled in a thousand cottages, and the 
churches were completely brilliant in the general 
illumination. A magic scene appeared to have been 



spread before us, filled with the beauty of nature in 
her fairest dress by daylight, and changed at even- 
tide into the splendor of another v^orld. 

We spent three weeks very pleasantly at the 
quinta, or country-seat, of an English merchant, just 
above Funchal, the chief town, while our ship was 
discharging and receiving freight. During this time 
we were often reminded by the ignorance and po- 
verty of the people, the absence of enterprise, the 
crowds of beggars, the numbers of churches with no 
sermons preached in them, the multitudes of priests 
in their peculiar garb, that the dark pall of the 
Roman religion was spread over the island. If an 
American would know what the legitimate influence 
of that religion really is, let him visit a country 
where it prevails without a rival ; where its charac- 
ter is neither elevated nor modified by the presence 
of purer forms of Christianity ; where Romanism, 
with its monks, and nuns, and many ringing bells, and 
innumerable outward solemnities, has banished the 
free and pure religion of the heart and its thousand 
temporal benefits. 

Leaving Madeira on the 13th of July, we took 
the north-east trade winds shortly afterwards, and 
soon got down towards the equator, where the pa- 
tience of the sailors, and passengers too, was tried 
with light and variable winds, calms, and little pro- 
gress. After entering the south-east trade winds on 
the other side of the line, we had again delightful 
saiUng. These trade winds are supposed to be 
caused by the colder air of the higher latitudes, 



which rushes down to supply the place of the air 
that, after becoming heated and expanded, ascends 
from the latitudes near the equator. Blowing stea- 
dily from one quarter, always strong enough to carry 
a ship from seven to ten miles an hour, almost with- 
out a sail having to be changed, and being of a 
pleasant temperature, it is not strange that these 
winds should be so eagerly desired by sailors. In 
a few weeks we had run over several thousand miles, 
the dashing foam from the sides of our ship being 
like music to our ears. Now was the time for the 
men to overhaul the sails and rigging of the ship, 
and to prepare for rougher weather. On Sundays, our 
public worship, always performed through the kind- 
ness of our worthy Captain, when the weather per- 
mitted, could now be conducted with a composure 
hardly less than if we had been in church at home. 

Our Sabbath services were well attended, and a 
Bible class lesson before the mast on Sunday after- 
noons seemed to interest the men. What results 
may have followed our ministrations, the great day 
will disclose. We could not but feel convinced 
that religious services on ship-board are commonly 
undertaken at a great disadvantage. The sailors are 
divided into two companies, called the larboard 
and starboard watches, and have four hour turns of 
duty at night, and four and two hour turns in the 
day-time, requiring therefore much of the day to 
make up the loss of sleep at night, and having 
always plenty of work when awake, so that they 
have little leisure for receiving instruction. It must 



be added, that too commonly they have but little 
inclination to attend to religious things. But when 
the officers of a ship will permit efforts to be made 
for their benefit, — and permission should always be 
respectfully and discreetly asked, and prudently used 
when granted — then should missionaries be willing 
gladly to avail themselves of the opportunity of 
giving religious instruction to those who so greatly 
need it. Repeated instances have been known in 
which such endeavors., faithfully and wisely made, 
have been attended with the greatest encourage- 

Our own party had morning and evening prayers 
in the captain's cabin, attended usually by the offi- 
cers, and a weekly service amongst ourselves for the 
study of the Scriptures. The greater part of the 
book of Acts was thus brought under review, with 
particular reference to its missionary instruction ; 
and these times of social religious duty we found to 
be peculiarly pleasant and valuable. 

Our fine trade winds at length failed us, and after 
a while we got to the latitude of the Cape. For 
several weeks we were making our " easting," that 
is, sailing eastwards, in a direct course, as the 
degrees of longitude there are short. We were 
now in the midst of the southern winter ; the 
weather was cold, damp, and most uncomfortable ; 
the wind often very high, and the sea rough and 
tempestuous. We could read but little, and that 
with no satisfaction. Returning sea-sickness, occa- 
sionally, made our situation the more disagreeable. 



Several heavy gales came on, one of w^hich was the 
strongest the captain had seen for many years. It 
continued for three days, and those were days of 
intense anxiety. It was considered extremely un- 
certain whether we should be able to resist the 
violence of the gale, and we endeavored to pre- 
pare our minds for the worst. Blessed be God, our 
minds were kept in peace, but it was distressing to 
witness the anxiety that prevailed amongst some of 
our ship's company. By the good hand of God 
upon us, however, we were kept from harm and 
brought out of all our distresses, and with thankful 
hearts we endeavored to consecrate ourselves anew 
to the service of Him, whose protection we had so 
manifestly enjoyed. The weather became more 
pleasant soon after our course was directed to the 
north. Passing rapidly through the trade winds 
again, we found the eastern seas, near and under 
the equator, as hard to cross as the same latitudes 
in the Atlantic, on account of light baffling winds, 
and frequent calms. The rest of the voyage was 
up the Bay of Bengal, consuming nearly a month, 
as the winds were now unfavorable. On the 11th of 
October, we descried the pilot vessel, anchored 
always off the Sand Heads, far out of sight of land, 
and in a few hours we took a pilot on board. In a 
short time we succeeded in beating through the 
dangerous channels at the mouth of the Hoogley, 
and before night we cast anchor in the waters of 
that river, the most sacred outlet of the Ganges. 
We were now near the island of Sagor ; which 



Hamilton described in 1828, as "a celebrated place 
of pilgrimage among the Hindus, on account of the 
great sanctity arising from its situation at the 
junction of the holiest branch of the Ganges with 
the ocean. Many sacrifices are in consequence 
here annually performed, of aged persons of both 
sexes, which are voluntary, and of children, which 
of course are involuntary, the periods fixed for their 
celebration being the full moon in November and 
January." This horrible custom was soon after- 
wards suppressed by the British. The island is but 
partially cultivated and inhabited. 

The anchor was hardly down before two or three 
boatloads of native fishermen climbed up over the 
bulwarks of the Star, and we had the offer of their 
marketing and their services to aid in getting up the 
river, with such a chattering of their almost inarti- 
culate words as seemed not unlike the speech of a 
troop of monkeys. They were of small, light, and 
active frame, dark complexion, agreeable and lively 
expression, but with no appearance of intelligence, 
and evidently very poor. Their coming on board 
was a common thing to our officers and other pas- 
sengers, who had made several visits to Calcutta, 
but to us they were objects of extreme interest. 
These were the people whom we had come to make 
acquainted with the true God and eternal life. But 
how hard to believe that such poor, almost naked, 
miserable looking beings should ever become intelli- 
gent and refined Christians ! Again, as often before 
and oftener since, we had to rely on the revealed 




promise of God, and the assurance of his power and 
infinite grace. 

When we were opposite Kedgeree, an English 
station about one hundred miles below Calcutta, 
where letters by ship are received and forwarded, 
we despatched some of our letters to Calcutta, 
with a request that a boat might be sent down for 
us, as it was very desirable that my wife, whose 
health had become greatly impaired, should escape 
from the noise of working the ship by frequent 
tacking up the narrow channel of the river. Vessels 
going to Calcutta during the cold season are often a 
week in getting up the river, and they are as long 
in coming down during the rainy season, and vice 

On the second day we had the pleasure of meet- 
ing the Rev. G. Pearce, a Baptist missionary, and the 
Rev. M. Winslow, one of our countrymen, to both 
of whom we soon became much attached. They 
had kindly come down in a small boat to receive us, 
and accompany us up the river. We left the Star 
in the afternoon with every feeling of gratitude to 
our kind Captain and to Dr. Huffnagle, the surgeon, 
for their constant and valuable attention to our 
comfort, and of kind regard for the other passengers, 
but with no regret at making our escape from the 
confinement and the now almost intolerable noise of 
the vessel. Our boatmen pulled along cheerily with 
the rapid tide ; and when the tide turned, they 
dropped their anchor, which was but a basket with 
stones in it, and wrapping themselves each in a long 



sheet of coarse muslin, they were soon fast asleep. 
Before morning we were again under weigh, and 
when the day broke we were but a few miles from 
Garden Reach, below Calcutta. 

Our boat people kept close to the shore, and the 
banks were so low that we could easily*see some 
distance in the country back from the river. The 
cocoa, palm, and other trees, which to us were as 
strange as they were beautiful, were of the greenest 
foliage, with fragrant creeping plants climbing 
through their branches, and many of them were 
laden with fruit, and shining with brilliant flowers. 
Strange birds were flying from tree to tree, and 
from little cottages, planted thickly under their 
overspreading branches, the people were coming 
forth to begin their daily labors — men going to the 
fields, or casting their nets, and women coming to 
the river, filling their earthen water vessels, placing 
them on their heads, and returning to their homes. 
The whole was a beautiful scene, novel in the 
highest degree, almost like a picture of some fancy- 
land, and yet full of life and freshness. And when 
the air came laden and fragrant with the scent of 
the earth and its rich vegetation, so different from 
the close smell of a ship four months at sea, it was in 
the highest degree reviving and exhilarating. My 
poor wife, ever passionately fond of country scenes, 
but now too enfeebled to bear excitement with safety, 
was quite overcome before we reached the end of 
our sail. Passing the stately European mansions 
on Garden Reach, and the East India Company's 



Botanical Garden, and Bishop's College on the 
opposite side of the river, we were soon in the 
midst of increasing multitudes of boats, and the din 
of many sounds, until presently we swept under the 
walls of Fort William and were in full view of 
Governm^t House. Landing at one of the ghats 
or stairs, we were soon received with the greatest 
kindness by the Rev. W. H. Pearce and his estima- 
ble wife. In a few days we were joined by our mis- 
sionary companions, who came up with the ship, 
and we took pleasure in praising the Lord for his 
goodness in bringing us to our desired haven. 





Extent of the country — Soil, and productions — Population- — Appear- 
ance of the people — Houses — Civilization — Caste. 

We had been instructed by the Missionary 
Society* to make inquiries on arriving at Calcutta, 
as to the most eligible sphere of missionary labor. 
The Upper Provinces of India, it was supposed, 
might be such a sphere, but we were at liberty to 
select our field of labor in any other part of the East 
that should appear more inviting. We at once pro- 
ceeded to fulfil this part of our commission. Having 
previously examined various works treating of India, 
our aim now was to obtain information partly by 
observing ourselves the state of things, but chiefly 
from intercourse with intelligent gentlemen who 
had long resided in the country. And we were 
peculiarly favored in meeting with several Christian 
friends, who had extensive and accurate information 

* The Western Foreign Missionary Society. This Society was 
afterwards merged in the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presby- 
terian Church. For an account of these institutions, see a volume by 
the Rev. Dr. Green : " Presbyterian Missions," published by W. S , 
Martien, Philadelphia, 1838. 



at command, the results of many years' observation, 
and who had also every disposition to promote our 
views. I may mention particularly our kind host, 
the Rev. W. H. Pearce, who has since entered into 
his rest, a devoted Baptist missionary, long the effi- 
cient superintendent of the most extensive printing 
establishment in India, and one of the best men I 
have ever known ; the Rev. Dr. Marshman, venera- 
ble for many years of missionary life, as well as for 
most extensive knowledge and unquestioned talent ; 
the Rev. M. Winslow, our respected countryman, 
of the Ceylon mission, then at Calcutta waiting for 
a passage home for his health ; the Rev. Dr. Duff, 
the able and eloquent Scotch missionary ; and a 
gentleman who occupied a distinguished place in the 
Civil Service. The information we received from- 
these two gentlemen last referred to was highly valu- 
able ; the former had been making special inquiries 
concerning the part of the country which we had more 
particularly in view, and the latter had himself 
resided for a number of years in the Upper Pro- 
vinces, and being a man of acknowledged talent and 
liberal views, and moreover able to appreciate the 
missionary movements of the Church of Christ, his 
information was extremely useful to us. 

Before giving an account of the considerations 
which induced our final decision, it may not be out 
of place to give some general notices of the country 
and people, which may aid the reader in understanding 
the importance of our mission. I ought, however, 
in fairness to mention that none of the gentlemen, to 



whose names I have taken the liberty of referring, 
can be held responsible for the following views, as I 
shall make use of information received and conclu- 
sions formed at a later period of my acquaintance 
with India, than pertains to this stage of the narra- 
tive. It is, however, but a slight sketch that can 
here be given. Many able and learned volumes 
have been written on these subjects, which the 
reader who desires to see more satisfactory state- 
ments will of course consult. 

India is an extensive country, lying between lat. 
8^^ and 35° N. and long. 67° and 92° E. Its 
boundaries are the Bay of Bengal and Burmah on 
the east, the Himalaya mountains on the entire 
north-east, the river Indus and the Arabian Sea on 
the north-west and west. These inclose an area of 
one million three hundred thousand square miles, 
running nearly to a point on the south, in the Indian 
ocean, being a territory nearly one third larger than 
that of these United States. The word India, as 
often used, includes the countries further east ; but I 
shall employ it agreeably to the common usage of 
late years, as the name of the territory whose 
boundaries have just been given. The Vindya 
mountains or hills extend from the western side 
almost to the Ganges, in the parallels of latitude 
from 23° to 25°. South of this range the country 
is called the Deckan, and sometimes Peninsular 
India; the country to the north of these hills is 
called Hindustan, though this title is sometimes 



given to the whole country ; and not improperly, 
for it literally means the abode of the Hindus. 

The greater part of this country possesses a soil 
of great fertility, particularly the immense plains 
watered by the Ganges and its tributaries, embrac- 
ing, perhaps, four hundred thousand square miles. 
These plains, for the most part of extremely rich, 
loamy, and alluvial soil, are amongst the most fertile 
and densely inhabited regions of the earth. The 
more remote of the north-western provinces, often 
called the Upper Provinces, or Upper India, become 
rather dry and sandy, with a sparser population, and 
towards the lower Indus there is an extensive sandy 
desert. What is called Central India, is said to be 
an elevated, broken, and rather sterile and thinly 
inhabited country. Along the western coast of the 
southern part, or Peninsular India, there is a con- 
tinuous range of hills, rising sometimes to the height 
of six thousand feet, and another, but lower range, 
along the eastern side, about one hundred miles back 
from the sea ; between these mountainous ranges, 
and also between them and the sea, the soil is good, 
and supports a large population. 

The climate is, during most of the year, extremely 
warm ; and for three or four months, heavy rains fall 
almost incessantly. Thus with a good soil, great 
heat, and plenty of moisture for a long time in each 
year, the fertility of a large part of the land is 
almost unbounded, and vegetation is exceedingly rapid 
in its growth. Cotton, sugar-cane, tobacco, opium, 
indigo, rice, and various small grains, are the pro- 



ductions of the lower, central, and peninsular pro- 
vinces; these are not all grown in the same districts, 
but all may be met with. Further to the north, 
wheat and the hardier grains are common. Among 
the fruits are the cocoa-nut, the banana, the mango, 
the guava, (fee. 

The people are numerous, almost beyond the be- 
lief of one who has been brought up in a newly set- 
tled country ; the whole number is commonly stated 
at about one hundred and fifty millions. When it 
is recollected that some large districts are very thinly 
inhabited, it will be perceived that a very dense 
population is thrown into the remaining, though still 
the much larger provinces. Thus in Bengal, a pro- 
vince not larger than the states of New York and 
Pennsylvania, the number of inhabitants is estimated 
at thirty millions. 

The complexion of the Hindus varies from that of 
the coal black laborers under the burning sun in the 
fields, to the olive-color of the wealthy babus, or the 
beautiful brunette of the lady of the Zennana. Their 
features are commonly very regular and pleasing ; 
their hair always dark. In their bodily frame the 
natives of the lower provinces are slight and feeble, 
and they are of a timid, effeminate disposition ; but 
towards the north-west you find a hardier, bolder 
race, amongst whom you often meet with noble-look- 
ing men of a proud, military bearing, wearing always 
full beards, which add greatly to their fierce appear- 

, They live commonly in very poor houses, made 



of bamboo wicker-work, or of clay walls dried in 
the sun, some ten or twelve feet high, and twelve or 
fourteen square, without windows ; fire-places are 
not needed. These dwellings are often divided by 
a basket-work partition, to provide an inner abode 
for the female members of the family. Often a close 
hedge or mud wall screens the back yard. Their 
houses are nearly always destitute of what we should 
call furniture, having neither chairs, tables, nor other 
heavy articles, but merely a low rude bedstead, a 
mat or two to sit on like tailors on the clay floor, and 
a few simple cooking utensils. This description 
applies chiefly to the houses of the common people. 
The wealthy and the great live in much larger and 
more costly edifices. The Hindus are never found 
living in houses standing by themselves, like farm- 
houses in this country, but always in villages, if not 
in larger towns and cities. 

The natives of India are by no means an uncivil- 
ized people, though they have made little progress 
in the higher attainments of western civilization. 
They have, however, a complete division of labor, 
with regular employment, established usages, and 
settled opinions concerning the subjects with which 
they are acquainted. The mass of the people culti- 
vate the ground, though many are herdsmen, boat- 
men, fishermen, barbers, &:c. Blacksmiths, carpen- 
ters, weavers, brass-workers, potters, shoemakers, 
tailors, jewellers, and a few other mechanics, may be 
found in all the large cities. Multitudes are priests, 
and not a few are beggars, either from necessity or 



from religious error. In a few branches of industry 
they have attained great excellence, as the Dacca 
fine muslins and the Cashmere fabrics bear witness; 
but most of their manufactures are of a coarse 
quality, and their labor in the fields is performed 
with the rudest implements. An observer witnesses 
no signs of improvement in their industry or skill. 
They are, and have been for centuries, almost sta- 
tionary in their position. They wear the same white 
muslins, and have the same fondness for showy pro- 
cessions, that Alexander the Great witnessed on the 
banks of the Indus, four centuries before the time 
of our Saviour. Doubtless they then ploughed the 
ground with a similar sharp pointed stick, and rowed 
their boats with oars projecting far out over the 
water, and had their few horses shod by an itinerant 
blacksmith, carrying his stock of tools tied up in an 

How are we to account for this wonderfully per- 
manent character of everything Indian? It may 
be owing partly to the denseness of the population ; 
for in countries where the inhabitants are extremely 
numerous, and the means of subsistence scarcely 
equal to their support, changes are made with great 
difficulty. Other causes may have their influence. 
I cannot doubt that much should be ascribed to the 
system of Caste, which is universally prevalent. 
This pecuhar sj'stem was and continues to be pri- 
marily a religious institution, but it has become inter- 
woven with the social and civil institutions of the 



country, and indeed with the entire life of the Hin- 
dus. It effectually stereotypes the state of things 
with which it has become connected. Any general 
change would be fatal to its power. 

Originally there were but four castes. The Brah- 
man, formed from the mouth of Brahma, one of the 
Hindu deities, to expound his laws, stands at the 
highest point of human elevation ; the gods them- 
selves are hardly his superiors ; all rulers who are 
not of his own order, are far below his rank ; and for 
the most atrocious crimes his life, under the native 
law, cannot be taken from him. Then follows the 
Kshatriya, formed from the arms of Brahma, to pro- 
tect the Brahmans in their spiritual duties. The 
noble looking Raj-puts of the western provinces are 
generally Kshatriyas, and are in great numbers found 
in the native regiments of the East India Company, 
where they make capital soldiers. Below them are 
the Vaissyas. created from the belly of their deity, 
and much inferior to the two higher classes. They 
are the ryots or farmers, a simple minded, regular, 
peaceful body of people, minding chiefly their own 
business, sharing more largely in the quiet blessings 
of life, and less in its turmoils, than any other class 
of people. Still lower are the Sudras, formed to be 
servants to the Brahmans from the feet of their god. 
Thus does this system exalt the Brahman tribe, and 
degrade all the other classes of the people. It was 
probably introduced to promote and perpetuate the 
power of the priestly class, as the various monastic 



institutions are made subsidiary to the power and 
elevation of the Roman ecclesiastics above the com- 
mon people. 

It would seem that the original features of this 
institution have, in the progress of many centuries, 
become greatly changed. It would now be a difficult 
task to determine a Hindu's employment, or even 
his relative standing among his countrymen, by his 
relation to these general divisions of the system. 
Numerous sub-divisions of caste have occurred, and 
many mixed castes exist, though new sects are now 
seldom or never formed. Perhaps few subjects are 
more embarrassing than the formation and rules of 
these mixed classes ; I shall not attempt to describe 
them. It will be sufficient to note that while the 
original classification still exists as the basis of all 
the existing varieties, and in a great measure deter- 
mines their rank, still these smaller divisions have 
landmarks of their own, and their usages are tena- 
ciously adhered to by their respective members. At 
the present day every occupation is allotted to a 
distinct sect. A person of one caste never eats with 
one of a different caste, nor are marriage connex- 
ions formed between them. The system is heredi- 
tary, and so is commonly the occupation ; the son of 
a farmer being com.monly a farmer, the son of a 
shop-keeper a shop-keeper. 

I have already mentioned the strong grasp of this 
system on its subjects ; no departure from its usages 
will be tolerated. There can be no change but by 
falling, no rising to a higher class, nor transition from 



one to another ; and the transgression of the smallest 
ceremonial would precipitate even a Brahman to 
the bottom of society. Provision is made, however, 
for restoring those who have fallen to their former 
standing. Liberal presents and bountiful feasts to 
the Brahmans have great efficacy in expiating the 
offence incurred by a departure from the usages of 
this system, if the penitent transgressor will but walk 
more strictly for the future. It would be a depart- 
ure from the usages of caste to adopt any improve- 
ment in any kind of employment ; and the violation 
of these usages would be instantly visited with the 
severest punishment — the loss of property, of reputa- 
tion, of employment, and even the hope of obtaining 
from the nearest relation the cold charity bestowed 
on common beggars by the hand of strangers. 

Here is one great difficulty preventing the conver- 
sion of this people to Christianity. To receive the 
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, in company with 
other communicants, would be a violation of caste, 
unless the officiating minister and all the communi- 
cants were of the same caste ; and the same diffi- 
culty is apparent as to other Christian duties. Nor 
is it less a hinderance to all improvement in the tern- ^ 
poral affiiirs of the people. It is a heavy weight 
crushing down the spirit of enterprise, even though 
enterprise in that land is goaded on by necessity, and 
quickened by the keenest appetite of covetousness. 
It raises a wall around the Hindu, which he never 
dreams of climbing over or throwing down. He 
concludes that such is his fate. "Hamara dastur 



hai," " it is our custom," is his resigned, passive reply 
to every proposal of a change. Surely this dreadful 
system shall not always bind down the minds of the 
people of India. Its very weight and bondage will 
conduce the sooner to its being thrown off, when 
the people begin to see its many direful evils. And 
other .considerations, which cannot here be intro- 
duced, serve to show that the day is drawing nigh 
when this master-piece of the great spiritual adver- 
sary's invention to enslave the minds of men, shall 
be broken into a thousand fragments, and it shall be 
known on the pages of history as one of the almost 
incredible things of former ages. 





Poverty of the People ; how accounted for— Literature — Reiigiori. 

From the account already given of their houses 
and style of living, it will be easily inferred that the 
Hindus are generally a very poor people. There 
are a few persons of large wealth, chiefly merchants, 
bankers, and farmers of the government revenue 
from landed property; but most of the people are 
extremely poor. They live on two scanty vegetable 
meals a day, clothe themselves with the coarsest cot- 
ton fabrics, and lodge in hovels such as have been 
described. In the part of the country through which 
I travelled, which contains two thirds of the popu- 
lation of India, the common rate of wages for labor- 
ing men was from two and a half to four rupees a 
month, or from one dollar and twenty-five cents to 
two dollars. This was their entire compensation, 
as they received neither clothes nor board in addi- 
tion ; and moreover they had no Sabbaths, those 
blessed days of rest to the poor man. 

This poverty is not owing to indolence, for they 
are an industrious, though not an energetic people ; 
nor is it owing to want of thrifty for no people know 



better how to make a few coppers buy a good sup- 
ply of food. Nor is it owing, as it appears to me, to 
the oppressive government of their present rulers. 
It must be admitted, however, that the Hindus are 
losers under their present government in one import- 
ant matter, though it is difficult to form an accurate 
opinion of their disadvantage. The revenues of the 
East India Company and the income of their servants, 
are not all spent in India ; nor does Commerce re- 
store to the Hindus what they lose by this constant 
drain of their pecuniary means. Their former rulers 
lived and died amongst them, and though their exac- 
tions might have been ruinous to individuals, yet 
they did not diminish the amount of money in circu- 
lation among the people at large ; what one man was 
deprived of, another enjoyed — it may have been most 
iniquitously ; yet the money was still kept in India. 
The British succeeded the Mohammedans as the 
rulers of India, and they have greatly improved the 
condition of the common people ; but they may not 
have sufficiently changed the general system of their 
predecessors, so as to allow to the cultivators of the 
soil a larger subsistence from their labors. The 
amount of taxation, of every kind, under the East 
India Company, has been stated at considerably less 
than one dollar on the average to each Hindu — a sum 
which does not appear excessive, and which, poor as 
the mass of the people are, probably would not be 
burdensome if it were returned through other chan- 
nels, as is the case in nearly all other countries, to 
the people at large. About £3,500,000, or nearly 




seventeen millions of dollars, it is stated, are annually 
remitted to England, being rather more than one 
sixth of the whole amount of taxes paid to the British 
by the Hindus. It may also be questioned whether 
the manner of administering the government of India 
is not too purely foreign and English ; and some 
might doubt whether it is sufficiently responsible, 
not to the Hindus, who are certainly incapable at pre- 
sent of governing themselves, on any enlightened and 
enlarged views of polity, but to the British people ; 
for India must now be regarded as a dependency of 
the British Empire. 

The British government of India is attended with 
its disadvantages, no doubt ; but it secures to every 
man the possession of his property, the protection 
from illegal violence of his person and his family, 
and the redress of his grievances, so far as that can 
be effected amongst so corrupt a people. In one 
word, it is a government of Law, conferring blessings 
which were unknown under Hindu and Mohamme- 
dan rule. Then the wealthy studiously concealed 
their wealth, and clad themselves in the dress of the 
poor. Then no man's wife or daughter was secure 
from insult, and it could hardly be said that any 
man's life was safe. Lawless despotism reigned over 
the land, which was the more galling because in the 
hands of numerous and constantly changing rajahs 
and nabobs. Perhaps one of the most satisfactory 
pooofs of the good influence of British rule in India 
is found in the fact often witnessed, that whenever a 
district or town, that previously belonged to a native 



king or chief, comes under the authority of the British, 
immediately the natives remove into it, and the num- 
ber of its inhabitants largely increases. Such was 
the case at Lodiana, where I was settled, and at 
other places that came under my own observation. 
The population of Lodiana in 1834 was some twenty 
thousand souls, who were subject to an old Sikh 
chief. He died in that year, leaving no heirs, and 
his possessions fell to the British as the paramount 
power. Immediately the number of the inhabitants 
began to increase, until they reached eighty thousand 
in a few years. 

The great body of the Hindus were always, under 
every variety of government, a very poor people. 
Their present poverty, therefore, is no new thing. 
Nor are famines, and the lamentable loss of life 
thereby, new dispensations in that country. Perhaps, 
also, in a country of which many provinces contain 
a population so densely overgrown, it could hardly 
be otherwise than that most of its inhabitants would 
be compelled to live on short allowances. The means 
of subsistence are not proportioned to the number of 
mouths to be supplied. And this natural evil has no 
doubt been made worse by the sfelfishness of com- 
merce, in exporting to other countries large quan- 
tities of rice for the provision of people who can 
afford to pay a better price for their bread. But the 
main cause of Hindu poverty and suffering, in my 
judgment, is the intolerable burden of their religious 
system, with its countless hosts of unprofitable priests 
and faquirs ; its multitude of beggars, earning reli- 



gious merit, not urged by necessity to seek for alms ; 
its numerous long, expensive, and painful pilgrimages 
to holy shrines and places, involving thousands of 
families every year in utter ruin ; its incessant drain- 
ing of the hard-earned gains of every laboring man 
and woman to satisfy the exactions of the Brahmans 
for priestly services, in ways and for occasions as 
numerous as the hours of every man's life, and with 
a rigor of superstition incredible to those who have 
not themselves been not merely witnesses but stu- 
dents of its enormity; and, perhaps, more than all, 
the apathetic, death-like influence of caste, withering 
and destroying all enterprise, improvement, and 
hope of bettering their condition. 

The literature of the Indians is very peculiar in 
its character, nor is it easy to form an accurate 
opinion of its value. Mr. Colebrooke has given a 
general outline or analysis of their writings in the 
Asiatic Researches, which presents them in a sufli- 
ciently favorable light. From this paper a few 
particulars may be quoted. There are six proper 
Shastras, in which all knowledge, divine and human, 
is said to be comprehended. These are the Veda, 
Upaveda, Vedanga, Purana, Dherma, and Dersana, 
The four Vedas, the fountain of all knowledge, treat 
of works, faith, and worship. Some of these are of 
very ancient origin, being written in Sanscrit so ob- 
scure and concise that modern scholars with difficulty 
understand them. They are of great extent, con- 
sisting of two thousand sections, with many hun- 



dred branches in various divisions and sub-divisions. 
The Tantra, Mantra, and other incantations, which 
are very numerous, belong to this class. The com- 
mentaries on the Vedas are said to be innumerable. 
The Upavedas, or sub-scriptures, are deduced from 
the Vedas, and treat of medicine, music, archery, 
under which the whole art of war is included, archi- 
tecture, &c. Mr. Colebrooke says, that the medical 
books contain much useful information concerning 
the virtues of Indian roots and plants. The medical 
practice of the Hindus does not deserve the name of 
a regular science. Three of the six Vedangas treat 
of grammar, a fourth of the obscure words in the 
Vedas, a fifth of religious ceremonies, and another of 
the whole range of mathematics. The Sanscrit pro- 
sody is said to be easy and beautiful, containing all 
the measures of the Greeks. Astronomical works in 
the Sanscrit are very numerous, seventy-nine of 
them being specified in one list. Subordinate to 
these general classes are the three last mentioned of 
the proper Shastras, containing the poems, the body 
of law, and the philosophical treatises. The Ra- 
mayana and the Mahabharat are the principal poems; 
the former is " a complete epic poem on one con- 
tinued, interesting, and heroic action ;" the latter is 
superior in its reputation for holiness. The eighteen 
Puranas, of which the Bhagawat, or life of Krishna, ' 
is the last, contain ancient traditions, embellished 
by poetry, or disguised by fables." The system of 
Law consists of many tracts in high estimation, of 
which the most celebrated is the Code of Menu, on 



which there are numerous commentaries. The Der- 
Sana, or. Philosophical writings, are also very nume- 
rous, and are explained by many commentators. 
The Vedanta is considered analogous to the Platonic, 
the first Nya ya to the Peripatetic, and other classes 
to corresponding Greek schools. Besides the Shas- 
tras, or sacred writings, there are books for the use 
of the Sudras, or lowest and far the most numerous 
class of the Hindus ; but the paper from which these 
notices are quoted, does not give a satisfactory 
account of them, nor have I elsewhere met with a 
description of them. The longest life would not be 
sufficient for the perusal of these Shastras. The 
Puranas alone are said to contain nearly five hundred 
thousand stanzas, with a million more, probably, in 
the other works mentioned. 

All these writings are regarded as sacred. Not 
only the biographies of their gods, but their works 
on law, astronomy, and other subjects, are considered 
of divine authority. 

Extensive as are the writings of the Hindus, there 
are comparatively few learned men amongst them, 
and they are by no means correct general scholars ; 
and their acquirements are seldom of much practical 
value. Their studies have the effect of disciplining 
their faculties, so that they are often acute and ready 
reasoners. The great body of the people, however, 
are ignorant in the extreme. They are debased 
alike by their religion and their poverty. Their 
religion has no days of instruction, their temples 
have no preachers, and their poverty leaves no time 



for the cultivation of the mind. Besides these causes 
of ignorance is another more universal and powerful, 
the degraded condition of the female sex. Pre- 
vented both by their religion and their social usages 
from acquiring the simplest elements of written 
knowledge, never seen in the schools, neither ho- 
nored nor cherished by their parents, brothers, or 
husbands, they can impart but little valuable know- 
ledge to their offspring. The mothers throughout 
the land being thus unfitted for their high offi.ce as 
the earliest teachers, the children grow up in a great 
measure untaught and vicious ; and the time of youth, 
the only season of leisure to most Hindus, passes 
away without instruction, discipline, or improve- 

The religion of the Hindus is a very large sub- 
ject ; to do it justice w^ould require a volume. I 
shall endeavor to present merely a few notices and 
remarks of a general character concerning it. 

It is supposed that about one seventh part of the 
Hindus are followers of the false prophet. Their 
faith is like that of their sect everywhere, and their 
practice differs but little from that of their heathen 
countrymen. They are hardly less superstitious, 
nor at all less addicted to immoral practices. 
Amongst the pagan Hindus there is a considerable 
diversity of sects, whose religious tenets are various 
and often contradictory. The Budhists and the 
Jains hold opinions that are irreconcilable with the 
Brahmanical forms of belief The votaries of the 



latter constitute the much larger part of the 

According to their behef, " the great deity Brahm 
remains in obscurity, and superstition is never 
allowed to profane his name, which is always kept 
clear of fiction. Three energies, however, the cre- 
ating, preserving, and destroying, are embodied 
under the names of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, to 
each of whom a female or passive energy is attach- 
ed. These have all human forms, diversified by the 
imagination in various ways ; and as the two last 
are supposed to have descended many times, each 
avatar or incarnation furnishes a distinct deity, to 
whom worship is addressed. Of the three specified, 
Brahma alone has no incarnations, and is never 
worshipped. Besides these three principal gods there 
is a whole pantheon of minor deities. The sea, the 
winds, the heavens, the elements, the sun, moon, and 
stars, every river, fountain, and stream, is either a 
deity in itself, or has a divinity presiding over it, 
nothing being done without the intervention of 
supernatural power. Descending still lower, there 
are myriads of demi-gods of a most extraordinary 
description, and numerous beyond the powers of 
calculation. A little red paint smeared over a stone, 
a lump of clay, or the stump of a tree, converts it 
into a god, worshipped by the lower classes, and 
saluted by the upper with much apparent devotion." 

This extract from Hamilton's Gazetteer presents 
a succinct sketch of the objects of worship among 
the greater part of the Hindus. Some writers enu- 



merate seventeen principal deities ; the whole num- 
ber, composed of all the classes, is often stated at 
three hundred and thirty millions, which, we may 
suppose, is a large number intended to convey the 
idea of infinity. It is, however, doubtless true that 
in India the gods are more numerous than their 

The metaphysical among the educated classes 
will describe their religion as a pure theism, ex« 
plaining away what seems contrary to the divine 
unity in the number of gods and goddesses, and 
putting a spiritual construction on what is gross in 
the actual prevalence of idolatry ; and they will 
express many just views of the character of God. 
Others hold such notions as are but atheism, and 
others more numerous are pantheists ; while the mass 
of the people, incapable of refined speculations, are 
neither more nor less than idolaters, w^orshipping 

lords many and gods many." 

If we look now at the common observances of 
religion, and the degree of attention given to its 
worship, we must consider the Hindus a highly reli- 
gious people. Nothing is undertaken, no event 
occurs, hardly an hour passes, without the perform- 
ance of religious services. These are sometimes 
very simple, perhaps merely the reverent lifting 
of the folded hands to the forehead ; sometimes, 
very difficult and expensive, such as prayers and 
fastings, repeated bathings, pilgrimages, painful self 
inflictions, gifts of flowers, rice, and money, sacri- 
fices of goats, bullocks, and formerly of human life. 



The birth of a child, giving his name, marriage^ 
engaging in business, making a journey, sickness^ 
death, funeral rites, and a thousand other things, are 
the occasions for performing religious ceremonies ^ 
and as the Bi-ahmans alone can officiate, and are 
always paid for their services according to the utmost 
measure of the votary's means, they are extremely 
watchful to prevent any omission or neglecl^of ritual 
duty. It has been well ascertained that the rite of 
the suttee, or self-immolation, was strongly urged in 
many cases on poor widows by these priests, who 
were instigated by the mercenary motive of sharing 
in the presents, which were always made by surviv- 
ing friends on such occasions. 

There are numerous religious buildings, or tem- 
ples, of a great variety in their structure and size^ 
Avhich are only places of prayer and ritual solem- 
nities, and not of religious instruction. There are 
no regular days of rest and religious teaching, but 
numerous festivals are observed. These differ in 
length from a few hours to several weeks ; they 
are professedly observed by the followers of the god 
in whose honor they are held, but other sects often 
unite in their celebration ; and they are usually 
accompanied with great frivolity and dissipation. 

Without going more at length into an account of 
this religion, I would now notice its defects and 
faults. It gives no correct revelation of the charac- 
ter and will of God. It provides no atonement for 
sin, nor any motives nor means of purifying the 
Ibun tains of thought and affection in our depraved 



nature. It imposes no restraint on the wickedness 
of men. It yields no support nor any consolation in 
the time of sickness, calamity, and bereavement. 
It sheds no light on the grave,— opens no door of 
hope beyond the tomb. It is thus a religion of dark- 
ness, — cheerless, gloomy, full of despair to the soul 
of a sinful man. 

It is, moreover, worse than all this. We have 
seen its oppressive influence on the temporal condi- 
tion of the people. Besides this, it is most demo- 
ralizing. It authorizes the commission of various 
crimes, amongst which, to certain classes, that of 
remorseless murder ; see, for proof, the work pub- 
lished by the British India Government, concerning 
Thuggee.* The gods and goddesses are the exem- 
plars of every vice and crime. Their history is 
often outrageously shocking to every pure mind, and 
so is their worship. Abandoned women are a part 
of the establishment connected with many temples ; 
dissolute priests abound, and their sacred character 

* " Ramasseeana, cr a Vocabulary of the peculiar language used by 
the Thugs, with an Introduction and Appendix descriptive of the sys- 
tem pursued by that Fraternity, and of the measures which have been 
adopted by the Supreme Government of India for its Suppression: Cal- 
cutta, 1836." 

Of this work a distinguished civilian in India has remarked, "It 
contains, I think, the most complete exposure that has ever been made 
of the evils of idolatry. Nothing which the missionaries ever alleged 
against it is so conclusive as this. Thuggee is a religious system, and 
the Thugs practise murder, just as Christians do charity, in obedience 
to the will of their God," 



enables them to become more depraved than vile 
men of other classes. Polygamy prevails, though 
checked by the poverty of the people ; and it is lawful, 
because the gods have many wives. A priest has 
been known to have sixty wives, married for their 
dower, and for gratifying his own base passions. 
Poor woman is degraded to a very low degree ; her 
religion never inspires her mind with pure aims, nor 
gives her an honorable standing, nor opens to her a 
better prospect hereafter. Truth, uprightness, and 
confidence are seldom found in business transactions. 
It is almost impossible to ascertain the merits of 
cases brought before the English judges, so unscru- 
pulous and utterly false are the witnesses. Part- 
ners in the same shop often have their separate 
locks, to prevent one entering unless the others are 
also present. These things, and many such like 
things, in themselves most evil, and not the less evil 
because flowing fairly from fallen human nature, are 
the more dreadlul, because they are the offspring of 
religion, the imitation by men of the character and 
conduct of their gods ! 

I am well aware that many writers have spoken 
more favorably of the Hindus, but I would ask 
the reader to distinguish between things that differ. 
There is much in the manners of a Hindu, especially 
in his respectful deference to his superiors (and all 
Europeans are immeasurably his superiors, or so 
regarded by him) that is certainly very prepossessing 
and pleasing. There is also amongst themselves 



commonly the entire absence) of rude and violent 
conduct, and between persons of the same station in 
life, there is a beautiful courteousness of manner. 
Their habits of living, moreover, are remarkably- 
simple, temperate, and regular ; and there is often a 
touching regard for their relations. And yet these 
things have their contraries, especially the one last 
mentioned, for you often see the aged and sick ex- 
posed to death on the banks of the Ganges, or most 
cruelly neglected at home. But still, there is much 
to admire in the manners of the Hindus, and much 
also in their character as it appears to a superficial 
observer, especially if he survey them from an elevat- 
ed position. It gives me pleasure to admit, also, 
that there are men who evince a praiseworthy regard 
to their engagements. And yet I fully agree with 
those writers who represent the Hindu character 
in darker shades. The favorable traits just men- 
tioned have misled amiable religious men, whose 
knowledge of the native character, as it appears 
among the natives, was but limited ; and these same 
things may have convinced men, not themselves ac- 
quainted with the evil of the human heart, nor of its 
sinfulness before God, that the Hindus are already 
an excellent, if not a virtuous people. But the reader 
of these pages, I trust, will form his opinion of the 
statements brought under his notice, by the unerring 
standard of the Divine oracles. And in their light, 
I fear not to claim for these millions of heathen, his 
most sincere compassion. No people more greatly 


TriE HlNDtTS. 

need the enlightening, purifying, and saving influen- 
ces of the relisfion of the Bible. 

I now return to the mission, undertaken with the 
humble hope of promoting the best interests of this 
people, by making known to them the gospel of the 
grace of God. 





North-western provinces ; reasons for the choice of — Educational 
movement — Authorities friendly — Arrival timely — Missionary co- 

After carefully weighing the information we had 
received, Mr. Reed and myself were clear in our 
conviction that the north-western provinces pre- 
sented the best field of labor for the commence- 
ment of our efforts. They contain a numerous and 
hardy population, with a better climate than the 
lower provinces ; and there is a ready access to the 
lower ranges of the Himalaya mountains, in case of 
the failure of health. They were then, and they con- 
tinue to be, in a great measure unoccupied by the 
missionary institutions of other bodies of Christians. 
And their position connects them v/ith other coun- 
tries in which no efforts have yet been made to intro- 
duce the Christian religion. The Sikhs, to whom 
our attention at first was specially directed, are a 
distinct people, neither Mohammedans nor Pagans in 
their religion, though their manner of life differs 
but little from that of the pagan Hindus. They 
inhabit chiefly the Panjab, but many of their chiefs 



live on the south side of the Sutlej under British 
protection. The territories of the latter are called 
the Protected Sikh States. Though a part of the 
Scriptures had been translated into their language, 
the Gurmukhij by the Serampore Society, no mis- 
, sionary establishment had ever been formed for their 
benefit. It was deemed, moreover, highly impor- 
tant to choose a large field, and one sufliciently 
removed from the missions of other Societies, so 
that there might be ample room for extended efforts. 

These general considerations appeared of suffi- 
cient weight to authorize our deciding on this part of 
the country. We were aware that it would require 
a tedious journey and considerable expense to reach 
any given point in it ; but we considered that these 
were disadvantages which some missionaries would 
have to surmount, if the means of grace should ever 
be established among those destitute people. We 
had the happiness of finding that our choice was 
highly approved by our Calcutta advisers, amongst 
whom we had the privilege now of consulting with 
the Rev. Dr. Corrie, who afterwards became Bishop 
of Madras. He was absent in the Upper Provinces 
on our arrival, where he had been for many years 
stationed as a Chaplain, but had now returned ; and 
we accounted it no small favor to be allowed to see 
so much of one who was not less beloved for his 
amiable and pure character as a gentleman, than 
revered and venerated for his excellence and faithful- 
ness as a Christian minister. 

Besides the general reasons mentioned above, 



thQre was just at that time a movement to promote 
the spread of the English language and learning in 
some of the important cities in the Upper Provinces. 
English Colleges had been established by the govern- 
ment at Agra and Delhi ; and instruction of a similar 
kind was wanted at some other places, one of which 
was Lodiana. This was the frontier post then 
occupied by the British on the north-west, a town 
of some twenty thousand or twenty-five thousand 
people, with the prospect of a large increase. It 
contained a number of Afghans and Cashmerians 
in addition to Sikhs and Hindus. The Afghans 
were from one thousand to two thousand in number. 
They were chiefly the retainers of two exiled kings, 
who, after a variety of sad fortunes, one of them 
having been cruelly deprived of his sight, had taken 
refuge under the protection of the British. For 
nearly twenty years these ex-kings had been living 
at Lodiana, receiving a large annual pension from the 
generosity of the East India Company. The younger 
of them was afterwards on the throne of Caubul, so 
various are the changes of Eastern politics ! The 
Cashmerians were more numerous. They had been 
driven from their homes by a famine and by the op- 
pression of the Sikhs, to whom their beautiful valley 
was in subjection. Several thousands of them were 
now following their various operations, chiefly that 
of weaving, at Lodiana. From these classes, and 
from the Hindus, a number of scholars could be pro- 
cured to attend an English school. Some of the 
Sikh chiefs, also, were anxious to have their sons 



acquainted with English ; and an Afghan chief, Uving 
west of the Indus, had actually sent his son to the 
care of the Political Aorent at Lodiana for the same 
purpose — an event so singular amongst the people of 
that part of the world, that he received credit, I pre- 
sume, for being influenced by a desire to acquire 
political knowledge for his own use, rather than the 
instructions of a school for his son. This desire of 
an English education was not confined to Lodiana, 
but existed at Amballa and other places in the north- 
western provinces. It was understood that the 
government had under consideration the question of 
extending their educational system so as to embrace 
Amballa and Lodiana, both in the Protected Sikh 
States. It was indeed highly probable that some 
secular institution of learning would soon be formed 
at one or both of these cities. 

Our Calcutta advisers rightly deemed it of great 
importance, that in the first efforts to be made, the 
Christian religion should not be divorced from edu- 
cation, as is unhappily the case in the government 
Colleges and most of the schools for English learn- 
ing in India ; the influence of such seminaries, 
therefore, only tending to the overthrow of the exist- 
ing religion of the country, without at all introducing 
the Christian faith in its stead. And they and our- 
selves both considered it advisable to connect our 
proceedings, in the first instance, if possible, with 
this Educational movement. Having decided on 
these provinces as our sphere of duty, it seemed ex- 
tremely desirable to enter on our vocation, by taking 



the lead in the efforts for the instruction of the peo- 
ple ; thus gaining effectual access to the minds of 
influential classes, without awakening their religious 
prejudices, which were represented as peculiarly 
strong in provinces so lately brought under British 
rule. The same consideration, though with dimi- 
nished force, applied to our intercourse at first with 
the English gentlemen in charge of the government 
of the Upper Provinces. Education was common 
ground for them and ourselves to stand on, until they 
could become acquainted with our views and plans 
of proceeding. For it should be remembered, that 
we were the first American missionaries who had 
attempted to form stations in Upper India, and our 
character, object, and mode of proceedings were all 
to be developed. If favorable impressions should be 
made by the pioneers of our enterprise, it would 
greatly conduce to the comfort and success of both 
themselves and their future associates. Indeed, in 
the Protected Sikh States almost everything depend- 
ed, in the first efforts, on the friendly countenance of 
the political agents and other English gentlemen. In 
these circumstances, the kind offices of the gentle- 
man in the Civil Service, to whom I have referred 
as one of our friendly advisers, were invaluable. 
He was one of the most able and successful sup- 
porters of the change of policy in the Government 
patronage of education, whereby the antiquated and 
cumbrous systems of oriental error were made to 
give place to the liberal and useful branches of Euro- 
pean knowledge ; and the educational movement in 



the north-west had already found in him a warm and 
efficient advocate. His official and friendly rela- 
tions, moreover, with the officers of the government 
in the Sikh States, as well as his position in the 
Cabinet, to use our Washington phrase, were pre- 
cisely those which rendered his cordial advocacy of 
our object of the greatest service. We should have 
been blind, indeed, not to have seen and recognised 
in these things the kind interposition of Him, in 
whose cause we were engaged, and who thus gave 
us favor in the sight of his servants, the rulers of the 

This extended account will not be considered too 
long, when the reader adverts to the apprehension 
which existed amongst many persons in our own 
country, as to our reception by the British authorities. 
They had feared that difficulties might be interposed 
to prevent our proceeding to the interior. Some of 
our countrymen, twenty years before, had been re- 
quired by the men then in office to withdraw from 
the territories of the East India Company. And so 
little was known at home of the favorable change in 
the administration of the India government, and of 
the liberal and enlightened policy of Lord W. C. 
Bentinck, the Governor General at the time of our 
arrival, that it was considered doubtful by some of 
our best informed men whether we would be allowed 
to form a settlement in the interior. In England 
there is often much complaint, by those connected 
with India affairs, of the want of information and the 
apathy of the community at large in regard to every- 


thing in India. In the United States, for obvious 
reasons, there is still less information and interest 
concerning such matters ; but " the times of this 
ignorance," we may hope, are passing away, to be 
succeeded by a lively concern, especially amongst 
religious people, in everything affecting the welfare of 
so large a portion of the human family. Our misappre- 
hensions and misgivings as to being allowed to pro- 
ceed into the interior of the country were entirely 
without foundation. We obtained the full permission 
of the Governor General in Council to proceed to the 
places we had mentioned in a petition, in which we had 
stated concisely but clearly our object, and requested 
liberty to reside in the north-western provinces. It 
was considered advisable in the first instance to send 
up such a petition, in order to preclude all suspicion 
as to our character and plans, and to remove any 
possible hinderance from the path of those who should 
follow us. For the favorable presenting of this paper, 
we were indebted to the gentleman whose kindness 
I have already spoken of. We can now look to a 
missionary home in India with no more apprehension 
on this point than we should contemplate a removal 
from one of our own States to another. 

I should not dismiss this point, without mentioning 
the view impressed on my mind by Lord William 
Bentinck's administration of the Supreme Govern- 
ment in India. It was his high honor to suppress 
the horrible rite of the suttee, to encourage the study 
of useful knowledge in the government colleges, to 



abolish the odious and oppressive system of transit- 
duties, and to manifest a steady regard to the prin- 
ciple, itself not more benevolent than true, that the 
present rulers of India have been intrusted with the 
power to control the destinies of its myriads of people, 
only in order to promote their best advance in know- 
ledge and general improvement. And it would be 
extremely ungrateful in me not to acknowledge at 
the same time our obligations to Lady William Ben- 
tinck, for her Christian favor towards our object. 
Her influence was given to promote it with a kind- 
ness worthy of herself, and in a manner the most 
considerate and effective. 

Our arrival in India appeared now to be most 
seasonable. If we had arrived at Calcutta at an 
earlier period, the special providences which seemed 
to open a door before us at Lodiana had not then 
occurred, and we should probably have been led to 
choose some other part of the country as the scene 
of our labors. If we had arrived one year later, 
we should doubtless have found the ground pre- 
occupied ; some secular institution of learning would 
have so completely blocked up the way, that it might 
not have appeared practicable to form a religious 
establishment. We could not doubt that we were 
under the guidance of Him who orders all things 
according to the counsel of his will, and who ever 
goes before his people, disposing their way so as to 
promote their best usefulness and his own highest 



Nor could we fail to acknowledge with gratitude the 
kind and Christian reception extended to us by our 
English missionary brethren. The Calcutta and 
Serampore missionaries, and those whom we after- 
wards met at other places, of every denomination, 
not only gave us a cordial welcome as co-laborers 
with themselves, but cheerfully granted us every 
information and advice, often greatly needed by per- 
sons so inexperienced as we were, and always valu- 
able from their long acquaintance with the country 
and people. The remembrance of much pleasant 
Christian intercourse with them, often awakens many 
tender and sacred feelings. There is surely some- 
thing as delightful as it is singular in the bond of 
brotherhood, which unites all the sincere followers 
of Christ. Here were Englishmen, Scotchmen, Ger- 
mans, and Americans, Episcopalians, Independents, 
Baptists, and Presbyterians, dwelling together in 
Christian charity; laboring together, not perhaps 
with perfect harmony of views, for that is reserved 
for a better state, but with mutual confidence and 
esteem ; not laying aside their respective peculiari- 
ties, but so strongly animated by a common spirit 
and a common aim, that their various differences did 
not prevent their respecting each other, and seeking 
each other's highest usefulness. May this spirit of 
forbearance and of love ever dwell in the hearts of 
all missionaries and all Christian people ! 

In the review, therefore, of the many favorable 
circumstances under which our missionary course 



was commenced in India, it were not only blindness, 
but ingratitude, not to recognise the hand of God in 
thus prospering our way. And the persuasion that 
His presence and blessing were indeed with us, 
proved our support and our ground of hope in many 
dark and trying hours. 





Death of Mrs. Lowrie — Decision to remain at Calcutta till the rainy 
season — Study of the language — Missionary efforts, three kinds — 
Mr. Reed's illness and return. 

It was but a few weeks after our arrival at Cal- 
cutta that we were called to bow in submission to 
the will of God, in what was to me a very distress- 
ing dispensation. My wife's health was by no 
means firm on leaving the United States, but her 
medical advisers thought her going to a warmer and 
less changeable climate would prove a means of re- 
storing her strength. During the voyage, however, 
she became gradually weaker, and before we reached 
Calcutta, it was apparent that her days would soon 
be numbered. She was herself the first to perceive 
the true nature of her illness ; she calmly prepared 
herself for its fatal result ; and she endeavored to 
prepare our minds for the hour of parting. Never 
have I known any person in similar circumstances, 
whose mind was kept more perfectly in peace, and 
whose prevailing desire was stronger to depart and 
to be with Christ." With a blessed Christian hope, 
she departed this life on the 21st November. It is 



not expedient to give an extended notice here of one 
who was greatly beloved. Her former pastor, the 
Rev. A. G. Fairchild, D.D., was kind enough to 
prepare a small volume of her memoirs, which has 
met with much acceptance, having passed through 
several editions, and which, there is reason to be- 
lieve, has rendered good service to the cause to 
which she had devoted her life. Her remains now 
rest in the Scottish Burial Ground, Calcutta. 

I have forborne to speak of my own feelings in 
this time of deep affliction. There are dispensations 
in the lives of most men, whose desolating severity 
no language can describe. There are hours of cold 
despair, which nature could not long endure. The 
blessed Gospel is our best and our only real solace 
in such times of trial. The support of our holy 
religion was graciously vouchsafed, as I trust, to 
myself and my companions in this bereavement ; 
and though the early removal of one who appeared 
so well fitted for usefulness was a dark event, we 
were assured that we should sorrow not as those who 
have no hope, that we should weep only for our- 
selves and for the heathen, and that we should know 
hereafter, as we could believe now, that infinite 
kindness and wisdom had been displayed in our 

A week or two before this mournful event, it had 
been agreed that Mr. and Mrs. Reed should proceed 
alone to the station we had concluded to occupy, 
and they had made some progress in their prepara- 



tion for the journey. But on further reflection it 
was thought better to delay their departure. It was 
now evident that Mrs. Lowrie could not linger long 
amongst us, and they, with the kindest consideration 
of our feelings, did not wish to leave us alone in the 
approaching hour of death. Besides this it was 
urged by our friends in Calcutta that the river at 
that season was low, and the winds adverse, so that 
it would be a very tedious and difficult voyage to 
ascend it. And as the hot winds would prevail in 
the upper provinces before they could finish the land 
part of their route, it was deemed better to postpone 
their journey. It was therefore finally concluded 
that they should remain at Calcutta until the next 
rainy season, and then I could proceed with them ; 
in the meantime we could prosecute the study of the 
native language. If they had gone agreeably to our 
first decision, I have often endeavored to imagine 
what would probably have been the subsequent his- 
tory of our mission. It has been well remarked, 
that " we do not know what are the small, nor what 
the great events of our lives sometimes those 
which appear smallest are yet attended with the 
gravest consequences. If Mr. Reed had proceeded, 
possibly his valuable life might have been greatly 
prolonged ; and yet the journey, instead of proving 
beneficial, might have rendered his days fewer in 
number. One thing has seemed not improbable, if 
he had proceeded with his wife as his only com- 
panion, that, owing to the length of the journey, and 
the difficulty of making it with so little acquaintance 



with the people and their ways as we then possessed, 
which would of course have been much more seri- 
ous to a married man than to one who had but him- 
self to provide for, my excellent associate might 
have been induced to stop at some of the many 
important places much nearer Calcutta, which were 
not less in want of missionary services than Lodiana 
and other places, in the far northwest. I am sure 
he would have been strongly urged to occupy some 
of these stations. Thus it might easily have hap- 
pened, not to say that it probably would, that the 
missionary efforts of our Church in India would have 
been undertaken under widely different circum- 
stances from what eventually occurred. Nor have 
I any doubt, having now the history of nearly seven- 
teen years to confirm the opinion, that our first posi- 
tion was on many accounts preferable to any other, 
as a point from which to commence our efforts. 
Other cities had a larger population, and could be 
reached in less time, and at less expense, but at no 
other could more favorable introducing influences 
have been enjoyed ; at no other could our position 
have been more distinctly marked, nor our character 
and object more accurately estimated by the foreign 
residents of the Upper Provinces ; at no other were 
we less likely to find ourselves laboring "in another 
man's line of things made ready to our hand," or to 
occupy ground that other bodies of Christians would 
shortly cultivate ; and, not to insist on the impor- 
tant consideration of health, no other place could be 
more eligible in its relations to other and not less 



dark regions of the earth, in its facilities for acquir- 
ing a number of the languages chiefly spoken in 
those parts, and in the access afforded to people 
whose character, if brought under Christian influ- 
ences, and whose geographical situation, would bet* 
ter enable them to spread far and wide the knowledge 
of the true religion. 

After my companions had relinquished the plan 
of proceeding immediately up the country, we agreed 
to take a house for the next seven months in Howrah, 
across the Hoogley from Calcutta ; and our plan 
was to devote our attention to the character and 
usages of the people, the best plans of missionary 
labor amongst them, having at that city almost every 
plan under our view, and particularly to the acquisi- 
tion of the native language. As soon as the requisite 
arrangements were made we procured a native 
teacher, and commenced studying the language. 
This must be the first and highest duty of the newly 
arrived missionary. Without this knowledge he 
w'ill probably become discontented in his work, and 
he assuredly cannot be useful in the highest degree. 
It is a very unsatisfactory plan to depend on inter- 
preters, and it is never adopted by missionaries in 
India, unless for a short time while they are learning 
the language themselves. This study must engage 
the main labor indeed of every missionary, until he 
is able to speak the language with ease. And it 
will be well for him if he have the advice and aid 
of missionary associates, already .acquainted with 
the particular dialect which he undertakes to ac- 



quire. For want of this aid, we met with consi- 
derable embarrassment; our Calcutta missionary 
friends speaking the Bengali, and not the up-country 
dialects, and our Hindustani teacher being able to 
give us little more assistance than to teach us the 
true pronunciation. In this study, however, almost 
everything depends on one's own efforts. And 
while a close and patient attention should be given 
to books, such as grammars, dictionaries, and ap- 
proved authors, it is not less necessary to mingle 
freely with the people, and thus acquire a practical 
readiness of speech, and of hearing too, for the 
natives utter their words very rapidly and almost 
inarticulately. Study and practice must go hand in 
hand. If a missionary would feel completely at 
home as a ready Hindu speaker, he must spend much 
of his time exclusively among the natives, while he 
cannot become an accurate and thorough scholar 
without long continued study of the best authors, 
and without habits of composition in writing the 
language. A mistake to which one is liable, and by 
which we were hindered in our progress, is often that 
of being too purely students. One of the mission- 
aries now in India has presented this point graphi- 
cally in a paragraph, which fully supports this sug- 
gestion. " Many appear to have commenced with the 
idea that they must stick to their books, and attempt 
little or nothing until they are masters of the lan- 
guage. Perhaps they start out when they think 
they can talk pretty well ; of course they are disap- 
pointed, and somewhat discouraged by their failure. 



They slip back into their study, and at once jump 
to the resolution of the fool in the Greek fable, that 
he would never venture into the water again until he 
had learned to swim. Those who have acted on 
the other principle have uniformly, 1 believe, be- 
come the earliest and best preachers in the native 

While we were thus employed, we did not neglect 
to make ourselves acquainted with the plans of labor 
adopted by the missionaries in Calcutta. We en- 
joyed capital opportunities of profiting by their expe- 
rience, and as the result of our inquiries, 1 insert an 
extract from our letter to the Secretary of the Society, 
the Rev. E. P. Swift, D.D., under date of April 24th, 
1834. The views given below have been supported 
by later and longer experience. 

" Perhaps the direct efforts of missionaries may be 
reduced to three classes ; Preaching the Gospel to 
many or few, as opportunity occurs, and in what- 
ever way circumstances permit ; Preparation of 
Books, including especially the translation of the 
Sacred Scriptures and the distribution of them ; and 
the Establishment and Superintendence of Schools. 
A single missionary may engage more or less in all 
these ways of doing good, if he have the requisite 
talents, health, and grace ; but probably his labors 
would, in ordinary circumstances, be more efficient, 
if devoted chiefly to one of these departments. All 
these modes are open to our choice. As to the first, 
we have been able to hear of only one missionary 



that has ever gone among the Sikhs, or into the 
Protected Sikh States ; and he went only on a short 
tour, and was not acquainted with the language 
principally spoken. In regard to the second, the 
only books in the Panjabi dialect are a translation 
of some parts of the Bible, and a small grammar of 
the language, both said to be very defective ; at least, 
we have not yet heard of any other books, such as a 
Missionary Society would prepare, nor indeed of any 
kind. And as to schools, we believe there is not, 
and never has been one, under European or Chris- 
tian direction, among the Sikhs. There is one at 
Sabathu among the Hill people, not under missionary 
direction, nor of high order, which succeeds well. 
The native schools throughout the country are of no 
value in any point of view, except as to the mere 
rudiments of reading and writing ; and even these 
are taught to very few. 

" We have, therefore. Dear Brother, the entire 
field before us, unoccupied, unattempted. It is in- 
deed an inspiring thought, that our Society has the 
prospect of beginning all that shall yet be done in 
communicating the blessings of science and religion 
to millions. May the Lord still prepare the way 
and prosper the efforts you make ! 

" It has been a matter of anxious thought what 
should be the system of education to which we should 
give the preference. As to preaching, and in respect 
to books, it is but little we can do until we have 

learned the language But to superintend a 

native school, we mean one taught by native teachers. 



and in the native language, a slighter acquaintance 
with the language is required, than is necessary in 
preaching. In teaching an English school, the mis- 
sionary might begin almost immediately after his 
location. Some diversity of sentiment exists as to 
the prominence which should be given to education 

in English Our great object should be to train 

up, by God's blessing and grace, a race of native 
preachers. To the former object, though to a cer- 
tain extent it should, and we hope will, receive our 
attention, our number is quite inadequate. It must, 
indeed, be manifest, that the Church cannot send 
forth a sufficient number of missionaries to educate 
the entire population in a proper manner. The men 
suitable in qualifications and circumstances are not 
to be had. Moreover, it would be at a vast expense 
of money, of time, and of life, that such a plan could 
be carried into execution. But all concur, that the 
best method is to train up native preachers, by send- 
ing forth a sufficient number of persons to conduct 
the system by which they are to be educated. 

" Persuaded that yourself and the Committee will 
fully accord with these views, though so imperfectly 
presented, we proceed to mention directly, but briefly, 
the considerations which induce us to think, that 
English education should be made prominent. Here 
it will be recollected, that our chief object in education 
is to prepare native ministers, who should be possessed 
of all the knowledge necessary to understand, explain, 
and enforce the meaning of the Sacred Volume. 
Any other kind of m.inisters would be of little ser- 




vice. But this knowledge does not exist in their 
language. Shall we then endeavor to translate all 
the store of English Theology into Panjabi ; or shall 
we educate young men in the English language, and 
spread before them the vast treasures of our Biblical, 
Systematic, and Practical Works ? The former plan 
is much the most expensive of the two, and much 
the least practicable. All the missionaries in India 
could not accomplish the former, though aided by 
the funds of all the existing Missionary Societies. 
The latter plan is simple, and, with the Divine bless- 
ing, may be carried into effect by a few individuals. 
It is indeed only applying to a heathen land the 
principles recognised by our beloved Church concern- 
ing our ministers, though with greatly increased 
force of application in a heathen land. English will 
become to this country, what the Latin was to our 
forefathers — the learned language of the people. 
And it is worthy of special notice by every observer 
of Providence in this land, that just at the time when 
many natives are wishing to acquire a knowledge of 
the English language, the Sanscrit, Arabic, and Per- 
sian, as if by common consent, are beginning to be 
laid on the shelf. The former contains all that is 
good, though with much that is bad ; the latter con- 
tain almost unmixed evil. So far as there is any 
experience on this subject, it decidedly confirms this 
statement. We may further mention, concerning 
this matter, that, in addition to its being the only way 
pf preparing suitable ministers, this kind of effort does 
not prevent the missionary from preaching, or pre- 



paring books, according to the measure of his time 
and talents ; while it seems peculiarly recommended 
to our notice in this land, where Europeans and 
Americans cannot engage in preaching the Gospel, 
or perhaps in any kind of duty, but at considerable 
hazard, exposure, and brevity of life. It is hardly 
necessary to explain, that we do not entertain the 
sentiments expressed above, to the exclusion of 
wishes and purposes for both common and female 
education ; but we think it expedient to present them 
thus at length, because it is probable this will be our 
first kind of labor, as we can commence soon after we 
reach the scene of operation. We think we shall 
possess encouraging prospects as to both the other 
kinds of instruction." 

During the latter part of the cold season, Mr. Reed 
was subject at times to a slight cough, though, as his 
general health was good, it gave us but little alarm. 
After some weeks, however, it assumed such a marked 
character as to awaken our serious concern, and 
medical advice was obtained, which, though not of 
a decided kind, by no means removed our fears. In 
the course of a few weeks longer, it became evident 
that his disease was consumption. No means was 
left untried to avert the disease, but it was all 
in vain ; his strength gradually declined, and at length 
all hope of a final recovery was abandoned. Mr. 
Reed himself was of the opinion that his illness 
might prove a very protracted one ; some of his rela- 
tions had suffered under the same complaint for years, 



enjoying during much of the time such a degree of 
strength as fitted them for attending to their usual 
business. And his medical attendant encouraged 
this view of his case, which seemed the more pro- 
bable, as but one lobe of the lungs was supposed to 
be affected. Still his weakness was so great as to 
unfit him for usefulness in a new mission, where 
everything was to be established ; and the expense 
of living was much greater than it would be amongst 
his friends ; while the degree of comfort, bodily and 
mental, was far less. After much consideration, and 
many fervent prayers for direction from on high, we 
were satisfied that it was advisable for him to return 
home. This was an exceedingly trying decision to 
himself, and not less so to his excellent wife. But 
they considered that this seemed to be the Lord's 
will, and under the same principles, and I believe 
with a greater sacrifice of feeling than they had 
made on leaving the United States, they now pre- 
pared for their voyage homeward. Our house in 
Howrah was given up, and Mr. and Mrs. Pearce 
again kindly received our afflicted friends as their 
guests. Passages were taken for them in the ship 
Edward, for Philadelj)hia ; a few more weeks soon 
passed away, and on the 23d of July they went on 
board. The ship had been delayed in her departure, 
and during the last week or two, Mr. Reed seemed 
to become feebler every day, so that we were inclined 
to doubt about his attempting so long a voyage. His 
kind medical adviser, however, still recommended 
the change, and all the arrangements having been 



completed, they did not deem it expedient to remain. 
Thus was our little company a second time visited 
with most severe dispensations. The general pros- 
pects of our mission continued to be favorable, but 
what with bereavement, the loss of my companions, 
and my own health far from good, the long and soli- 
tary journey to Lodiana appeared to me exceedingly 
disheartening. My own discouragements, however, 
were light when compared with my beloved mis-* 
sionary brother's mournful lot. His hopes were all 
disappointed, his plans all set aside, his fervent desire 
of usefulness to those poor heathens not granted — • 
I do not say, not accepted nor rewarded. For He, 
whose eye saw his servant's purpose to assist in 
building the spiritual temple, would in his case, as in 
that of David, accept the desire and vouchsafe a 
gracious reward. It is not what our hands perform 
that chiefly receives his favor, but what our hearts, 
influenced by his grace, devise and desire to accom- 
plish. And if this dispensation appeared as dark as 
it was severe to us all, yet we were assured that 
what we knew not then we should know hereafter, 
and that we should yet praise God for all his dispen* 
sations towards ourselves and towards his cause. 
Thus in faith we parted, no more to meet on earth, 
but with a firm hope of meeting in a better wwld. 

Nearly a year afterwards I heard of the death of " 
Mr. Reed, on the 12th of August, about three weeks 
after leaving Calcutta. He continued to enjoy a 
calm and steady peace until the last, and then 
resigned his spirit into his Saviour's arms. He was 



a man of respectable talents, ;great perseverance, 
and excellent judgment. These traits, united with 
the perfect sincerity of his Christian character, and 
the entire devotion of all his powers and aims to his 
Lord's service, would have made him a most valuable 
minister of the gospel either at home or abroad, and 
seemed to fit him for eminent service in the mission- 
ary field. But the Master whom he served had work 
for him in a higher sphere of duty and enjoyment. 





Native boats — Serampore — Dangers of" tracking" — Numerous towns 
^Boat wrecked— 'Berharapore — Moorshedabad. 

While my missionary companions were preparing 
for their voyage by sea, I had been getting ready for 
a hardly less tedious voyage up the Ganges ; and 
shortly after our parting on the Edward, I went on 
board a native boat. While they were going down 
the river, oppressed, I doubt not, with deeply sor* 
rowful feelings, I was slowly making my way up the 
same river with no other companions than natives, 
and with a journey of twelve hundred miles before 
me, amongst a strange and heathen people. Under 
these circumstances, and at other times, I was made 
to feel that the trials of missionary life are often 
chiefly those of the mind. It is not the privation of 
the comforts of home, nor the outward hardships of 
his lot in his new sphere of life, but it is mainly the 
separation from friends, the loss of social and Chris- 
tian privileges, the thoughts and longings of the mind 
for what must be foregone; the thousand visions of 
the imagination, by day and by night, of what is far 



distant and never again to be seen — it is chiefly these 
things that are trying to bear. But trials can be 
supported with cheerfulness, if we are in the path of 
duty. I could not look in any direction without 
seeing multitudes of people " without God, and with- 
out hope in the world," through our Lord and Savi- 
our, Jesus Christ. I could not receive the Sacred 
Scriptures as the guide of my own faith, and the 
means of my own hope of eternal life, without at the 
same time believing a knowledge of them to be equally 
necessary to the dark-minded people around me ; 
nor could I doubt the solemn obligation resting on all 
Christians, to use all proper m.eans for making known 
the glad tidings of salvation to every creature. 
Here then was a work to be done, of the most sacred 
character, by which the v/eightiest interests of the 
souls of men would be affected ; and if the Saviour's 
spirit, not less than his command, but moved me to 
take part in that work, surely I could not doubt that 
all temporal and earthly sacrifices should readily be 
made, in order to fidelity and success in so holy a 
calling. These were the circumstances, of all 
others, in which a minister of the Gospel might 
humbly hope for the fulfilment of our Lord's promise, 
" Lo, I am with you always." — I could not hesitate^ 
therefore, to go forward. 

There are three modes of travelling in India : by 
the rivers in boats, or on land with tents, or in 
palankeens. Before the introduction of steamers, 
which are but partially used, however, on the India 
rivers, the only mode of expeditious travelling was in 



a palankeen, carried by men, having relays stationed, 
by a previous arrangement, at certain stages, usually 
about ten miles apart. If the traveller takes his rest 
in his palankeen, and proceeds by night as well as by 
day, he may make about one hundred miles in the 
twenty-four hours. It is a very irksome way of tra- 
velling, and if he have much luggage, which he 
wishes to keep under his eye, this mode cannot be 
chosen. Travelling with tents, during the cold sea- 
son, is a pleasant way of making a journey, though 
a tedious one. From ten to fifteen miles a day is the 
usual distance of each stage. I determined to pro- 
ceed by the river in the kind of boat commonly taken 
by European travellers, called a budgerow ; and at 
the recommendation of others, I procured a smaller 
boat to accompany the budgerow, chiefly as a freight 
boat, but to serve also as the kitchen of our party. 
This smaller boat proved unnecessary and inconve- 
nient, while it added to the expense. These boats 
are of a half round bottom, without a keel, rather 
wide towards the stern, and tapering to a point in 
front. They have a cabin over the after-part, with 
a flat roof, on which the boatmen sleep at night, and 
work the boat much of the time by day, particularly 
in poUng or sailing. A single mast stands nearly in 
the centre of the boat, just forward of the cabin ; 
and oars are fastened to the long narrowing deck 
before the mast, but are seldom used. They carry 
no ballast, and the lading is so placed as to be above 
the water-line ; being thus top-heavy, there is con- 
stant danger of being overturned. 



These remarks will aid the reader in understand- 
ing some accounts of this river journey, which were 
made after reaching its end, from rough notes taken 
down on the way. 

July 25, 1834. — Having engaged a twelve-oared 
budsrerow, and another native boat for the servants 
to cook on, and for part of the luggage, I had expected 
to start early this morning on the journey to Lodiana. 
Bishop Heber speaks of " two hours' squabbling" with 
the boat people, when he was setting out on his tour 
of visitation. I found some trouble both with the 
budgerow people and the freight or cook-boatmen. 
The former refused to prepare their meals on the 
boat, insisting on being permitted to cook on the 
budgerow — which, from the nature of the ingredi- 
ents used by them, and from the smoke, would have 
been very disagreeable. After they found that this 
point could not be gained, which, however, they did 
not yield until the matter was carried before the 
agents from whom I had hired the boats, then the 
people of the other boat set up a great jabbering 
about the place in their boat which should be assigned 
to the budgerow people for cooking. The ostensible 
ground of the difficulty in both cases was the fear of 
losing caste ; which was merely a pretext, the true 
reason being a regard to their own convenience. 
The evils of caste in this country are visible in a 
thousand forms. Here is an example. Each caste 
must cook by itself and eat by itself. We have, now 
three places for cooking on the freight boat ; one for 
me, at which also the servants cook ; and one each 



for the crews of the two boats. One thing was ob- 
vious in these disputes, that mild firmness in our in- 
tercourse with these poor natives is quite important. 
I beUeve they entertain more respect for me now, 
than if I had yielded to all their demands. We 
started with the tide ; but made no progress, as the 
wind was strongly against us, and were obliged to 
" come to," after two or three hours of hard work. 

July 26. — We started again with the tide about 
three P. M., but did not make much progress, moor- 
ing a few miles above Chitpur — five or six miles' dis- 
tance. The boatmen seem a strong, active set of 
young men ; and are thus far disposed to be very 
obliging. But they are very ready to take every 
opportunity of imposing on the ignorance or weak- 
ness of the " Sahib." Two incidents of this kind 
occurred to-day. In the afternoon, the Manjhi or 
headman, came with great respect to ask for twenty 
rupees, to be repaid at Cawnpore. He knew very 
well that his wages were to be paid by the agents, 
not by me, and therefore wished me to lend him the 
money. But I happened to know, that if he got 
possession of any sum, however small, I should have 
much trouble, and little hope of getting it back 
again ; and so declined granting his request. Soon 
after, one of the men came to beg a rupee, telling me 
that it was dusturi, customary. Again I happened 
to know better. It is recommended to make them 
occasionally a present of a basket of fish, which 
gratifies them more than the money paid for the fish. 

July 27. — We started early, hoping to reach Se- 



rampore by sun-rise. Serampore is a small Danish 
settlement, about fifteen miles above Calcutta, on the 
opposite side of the Hoogley. It has more of a 
European appearance than most towns in India, and 
stretches nearly a mile along the river's bank, but is 
of no great breadth. Everything now wears the 
aspect of decay ; though formerly it was a place of 
considerable importance. 

The Serampore Baptists are known among all the 
churches, as the earliest missionaries to this part of 
India, and as formerly extensively engaged in trans- 
lating and publishing the Scriptures. It is any- 
thing but agreeable to have to add, that the operations 
of this Society seem to be on the decline, as well as 
the town in which its head-quarters are established. 
It is ascribed partly to the want of funds. At Se- 
rampore there are three European ministers, includ- 
ing Dr. Marshman ; and there are some other Euro- 
peans connected with' the press. The former are 
occupied partly w^ith a kind of College, to prepare 
young men for the missionary service. There is a 
fine college edifice, and a good collection of books ; 
but not many students. A number of the mission- 
aries employed by this Society received theirinstruc- 
tion here. If I have been correctly informed, the 
greater part of the Serampore missionaries, at the 
subordinate stations, are East-Indians ; good men, 
and, from their intimate knowledge of the native 
language, and their ability to endure the heat of the 
climate, well adapted for usefulness. I saw but two 
of these missionaries, who appeared to be excellent 



men. Their usefulness, however, would be greatly 
promoted by their spending some time in a Christian 
country, such as England or the United States, while 
pursuing their studies. It is difficult for those who 
have been born and brought up in a heathen coun- 
try, even though under the best auspices, to form 
those clear and enlarged conceptions of the nature 
and advantages of Christianity, and of civilization 
in general, which a residence in a Christian land 
would almost certainly afford opportunities of form- 
ing. I do not mean to say, that some of the mission- 
aries of this class are not equal or superior to some 
European missionaries ; but only that the former 
would be much benefited by enjoying the advan- 
tages of the latter. One of the Church Society's mis- 
sionaries is an East-Indian, who had the advantages 
of a residence for some time in England ; and he is 
now regarded as one of the most efficient mission- 
aries in the Presidency. The Serampore mission- 
aries have Enghsh services on the Sabbath, at two 
or three European stations not many miles distant ; 
and they have also the superintendence and direction 
of the various branches of the Serampore mission. 
Dr. Marshman is now an aged man. He is almost 
the only aged missionary I know, and stands like a 
venerable oak in the forest. 

On the opposite side of the river is Barrackpore, 
a large Military Village, where the native soldiers 
(called Sepoys, from the word Sipahi — a soldier) 
attached to the Presidency-Division of the army, 
have their quarters. Sepoys form much the great- 



est part of the British army in India. They are 
always commanded by English officers, and make 
excellent soldiers. At Barrackpore, the Governor- 
General has a country residence. There is a small 
church also, and a chaplain. 

July 28. — We started again in the clear moonlight 
about three o'clock A. M., and in the early part of 
the afternoon reached Chinsurah, twenty-two miles 
by water. The boatmen " tracked" a good part of 
the way, that is, six or seven men went on shore, 
and, pulling with a long rope, drew the boat along at 
the rate of about two miles an hour. It is hard 
work ; as the poor fellows have to cross nullahs, or 
arms of the river, frequently so deep as to require 
them to swim, and to walk often knee-deep in mud, 
all the time exposed to a hot sun. They relieve 
each other every hour by twos; that is, two of the 
men from on board the boat take the place of two 
who have been longest on shore. To keep their 
rope from becoming entangled by the bushes, and 
from draggmg heavily through the water, they make 
it fast, about fifteen feet above the deck, to the mast. 
As a considerable part of the vessel in the water is 
before the mast to which the rope is attached, and as 
the rudder is too small to be of much use, when the 
current happens to be very strong, there is great 
danger that the prow will be forced to one side or 
to the other : and then there is still greater danger 
that the boat will be pulled by the men at the rope 
on its beam-ends/' as the sailors say, on its side, 
and go down to the bottom. I describe the process 



minutely ; for my most frequent dangers, and some 
of the greatest, were from this source. In many 
places, the current dashes along with immense force 
at the rate of seven or eight miles an hour. The 
" trackers." bent almost to the ground, strain every 
muscle to pull the boat. The prow suddenly veers 
from the right direction ; the boat is already half on 
its side ; all on board sing out as loudly as possible 
to the men on shore to slacken the rope ; and, if 
they hear in time, all may be well enough ; but if 
not, the danger is very imminent that everything 
will be lost, except the lives of the reckless boat- 
people, who seem to be an almost amphibious race. 
It would be no easy matter to drown one of them. 
When the wind is not favorable, " tracking" is the 
common mode of getting along ; as they hardly ever 
make use of their long awkward oars. Of course, 
it is a very tedious mode of travelling. When the 
wind is favorable, they spread sail, contriving to 
fasten two or three sails, one above another, to the 
single mast in the centre of the boat. A strong wind 
will carry the boat against the current from twenty 
to thirty miles a day ; the distance varying as the 
channel may accord with the direction of the wind. 
From June to October, the wind usually blows from 
the south-east, though not without intervals of con- 
trary winds, or of no wind at all. From October to 
March, the wind is from the north-west. 

A few miles above Serampore is Chandernagore, 
a French settlement. The town is not very large, 
and is not prosperous ; though formerly it was a 



place of some importance. The tri-colored flag was 
flying, and guns were fired every half hour, the day 
I passed — I suppose in commemoration of the " three 
days' revolution" in 1830. Chinsurah was originally 
a Dutch settlement. It is not a place of much com- 
merce now. The situation of these three foreign 
settlements — Serampore, Chandernagore, and Chin- 
surah — until recently, in the midst of the British 
territory, is rather singular. They are regarded by 
the English authorities, I believe, as islands, and the 
same general pohcy is pursued towards them that 
would be pursued towards Danish, French, and 
Dutch Islands in the ocean. Each place has its own 
Governor appointed by its respective king. But 
since Calcutta has engrossed the commerce of this 
part of India, the duties of these Governors are 
chiefly to administer the local government of their 
respective towns, a very insignificant sphere of 
operation. At Chinsurah there is one missionary 
under the London Missionary Society, who has the 
charge of several schools. 

July 29. — We started about five o'clock, and after 
toiling hard for twelve hours, most of the time at 
the rope, the men moored at a small village of fif- 
teen or twenty cottages. This village is in the 
midst of the jungle, or waste, uncultivated land ; 
which is here covered chiefly with tall, rank grass. 
The people are cowherds ; and not one of them can 
read. By way of excuse, one of them told me they 
were Bengalis, and there were no Bengali books. 
He was probably ignorant enough not to know any 



better. We made about twenty miles. The banks 
of the river are becoming higher, and I even saw an 
elevation like a very low hill. Cocoa-nut trees are 
not numerous. Heretofore, the banks of the river, 
when not cultivated, are covered with a very dense, 
luxurious growth of underwood, among which the 
cocoa-nut, raising its tall straight trunk without 
limb or leaf, except the tuft of long leaves at the 
top, forms a very prominent object. 

I saw a few English-looking houses to-day, occu- 
pied by indigo-planters ; and passed one large church, 
much like some of the churches in Madeira. It was 
at Bandell, an old Portuguese town, where, it is said, 
there is also a monastery. Hoogley is close by 
Bandell, and is an ancient native town, where for- 
merly the French, Dutch, Portuguese, and Danes, 
had each a factory. In 1632, the first serious quar- 
rels between the Moguls and Europeans occurred at 
this town. The Portuguese lost sixty-four large 
ships (in one of which were two thousand persons, 
who, with all their property, were blown up), fifty 
grabs, and nearly two hundred sloops. The river at 
that time must have been more favorable for naviga- 
tion than it is at present. Such a fleet could not 
now come thus far up the river. The town of 
Hoogley is still large and populous ; and is prosper- 
ous, being the seat of considerable native trade. It 
is an important place for a missionary station, 
especially if it could be occupied by a well educated 
native missionary. 

July 30. — We started at five, and at ten were not 



more than fifteen minutes' walk from the place 
whence we set out, though we had made several 
miles. The river makes a remarkable bend at this 
place. We stopped for the night at Culna, a large 
and prosperous native town. The Church Mission- 
ary Society support a Catechist at this place, who 
has charge of a school; but he was not at home. 
By a large town, 1 mean a town of several thou- 
sand inhabitants. It is extremely difficult to form a 
correct estimate of native population ; but Culna 
probably contains ten or fifteen thousand inhabitants. 
As usual, I took some tracts to distribute during my 
walk on shore. It is, however, but a very small 
proportion of these people who are able to read; 
perhaps not one person out of fifty. I gave three 
tracts this evening to different persons, who were 
very willing to receive them. One of the men, a 
Brahman, soon came to me for another tract, telling 
me he had given the first one to his " brother," the 
common phrase for friend. 

July 31. — Our boats were moored this evening 
just below the junction of the Bhagirathi and Jel- 
linghi rivers — branches of the Ganges, which here 
unite and form the Hoogley. I find here another 
budgerow,and numerous native boats, all waiting for 
a change of wind. On the opposite side of the 
river is Nuddea, a native town of some size, which 
was formerly the seat of considerable Brahmanical 
learning ; though, at present, few traces of it are 
said to remain. The district of the same name, in 
1802, contained, in a territory of aboi^t three thou- 



sand square miles, upwards of eight hundred thou- 
sand people. It is supposed the number is now 
much greater. In the adjoining district of Burd- 
wan, the population amounted to six hundred persons, 
on the average, to a square mile. 

August 5. — For two or three days, including the 
last date, the wind was quite unfavorable ; so that 
we were obliged to lie to, without attempting to make 
any progress. On Sunday the wind increased to a 
violent gale, causing large waves on the river, which 
is here deep and broad. We were unfortunately 
moored to the lee-shore ; so that the wind both 
dashed the boats against the shore, and the waves 
against the boats. It soon became evident that we 
should have difficulty to save the boats from being 
wrecked. In the other budgerow were a gentleman, 
his wife, and their children. The lady becoming 
alarmed, insisted on leaving the boat, and it was well 
they did so, for it sank under the fury of the waves 
in a few minutes after they left it. A number of 
native vessels, and my freight boat, in which were 
some large boxes of things, shared the same fate. I 
had most of the valuable articles taken out of the 
budgerow, and with great difficulty it was just 
saved ; but as the rain was pouring down in torrents, 
and the wind was very high, the books were much 
injured, the other articles also damaged more or less, 
and I got, of course, after three hours' hard work 
in the rain, completely tired and wet. 

An English family happened to reside in the 



neighborhood, who received us kindly, and provided 
dry clothing, &c. — This was one of two special 
circumstances, deserving sincere gratitude. The 
prejudices of the natives prevent their receiving 
foreigners into their houses, and there are very few 
English families in this section of the country — not 
one in every twenty miles. The exposure might 
have proved injurious, if it had been necessary to 
remain unsheltered, in wet clothes, during the dread- 
ful stormy night which succeeded. The other cause 
of thankfulness was that the gale did not come on 
during the night, as in that case everything would 
have been lost, and probably our lives also. The 
gale was very general, and occasioned great loss of 
property, and the loss of many lives. I hope to 
recover the greater part of my pecuniary loss from 
the Insurance Office. 

Travelling on this river is, almost at every season 
of the year, attended with danger. The boats, even 
those for the accommodation of English people, as 
budgerows and pinnaces, are awkwardly built on a 
more awkward model, at least the former ; the boat- 
men are unskilful and reckless ; during the rains, 
though you have usually a fine wind, yet you must 
stem a strong current ; at other times you are in 
danger from north-westers, &c. Every year many 
boats are lost. I have heard of two budgerows being 
entirely lost since I left, and I have several times 
seen that it was the almost direct power of an Al- 
mighty hand that saved mine from the same fate, 



when rapid currents, contrary wind, miserably 
managed sails, and inefficient boatmen, seemed almost 
to make certain such a result. 

August 6 and 7. — We arrived at Cutwa on the 
evening of the 6th, and were detained near that town 
all the next day by contrary winds. Cutwa is a 
native town of some size, about seventy-five miles 
direct distance from Calcutta. There is a Baptist 
missionary here, Mr. Carey, a son of the late Rev. 
Dr. Carey. There is a school under the care of Mrs. 
Carey, and a small church of native converts. 

August 9. — We reached Berhampore in time to 
spend the Sabbath among Christians — a great privi- 
lege. This town consists of two parts, as do the 
most of the towns where the English have stations ; 
the one for European residents, the other for natives. 
These two classes are seldom found dwelling together, 
or in the same street. The reason is, that their 
mode of living, kind of houses, customs, &c., are so 
widely different, that each class finds it more conve- 
nient to have quarters of its own. I mention this 
circumstance, because I am inclined to think it has 
some bearing on the usefulness of missionaries. 
Dwelling usually in the same parts of the station 
w^ith their countrymen, they are perhaps too much 
identified with them ; and less opportunity is afforded 
to the natives to profit by their example, silently 
operating under continued observation. There is 
probably, however, less truth in this remark at Ber- 
hampore than at most stations, as the missionaries 
reside near the native part of the town. In general, 



also, it should be stated, that the missionaries have 
really little choice about the matter ; as it is seldom 
practicable to obtain a house in the native part of 
the town which would afford any accommodation for 
an English family. Indeed, if it were practicable, it 
might in many cases be inexpedient, owing to the 
danger of injury to health from the crowded, dirty, 
narrow streets, which characterize most native 
towns. Yet, where a house at all suitable and eli- 
gible could be procured, the advantages of intercourse 
and of example would be greater, and should never 
be overlooked. Berhampore is a military station, 
where, in addition to a regiment of Sepoys, there is 
a regiment of European soldiers, probably eight 
hundred or one thousand men. 
V The London Missionary Society has two mission- 
aries at this place; who find employment in the 
native town, which is not very large, and in tours 
through the towns and villages in the country around. 
They have two or three schools, partly under the care 
of their wives, for teaching the elementary branches 
of the native language ; and there is a small orphan 
asylum. One of the missionaries has an English 
service, on Sabbath evening, in a neat chapel. There 
are no native converts at present, or at most but 
two or three. This mission was commenced about 
ten or twelve years ago. — On Sabbath, I went with 
the Rev. Mr. Hill into the bazar, whither he usually 
goes every day to make known the Gospel. A hazar 
corresponds to the streets of our cities and towns 
occupied by stores and shops. The part of the 



building next to the street is a kind of open shop, in 
which various commodities, commonly of but Httle 
aggregate value, are exposed to sale. During busi- 
ness hours, the bazars are generally full of people, 
buying and selling. Mr. Hill took his station at one 
side of one of the principal streets, under the shade 
of a house ; and, addressing a native who seemed to 
have little to do, he began to read a tract aloud. 
Seeing a Sahib'' thus employed, numbers of those 
who were passing to and fro, stopped to listen, 
until we were surrounded by forty or fifty people — 
men, women of the lower classes, and boys. Some 
stopped for a few minutes, and then pursued their 
way. Others stayed longer, and some continued all 
the time. Some seemed to listen from curiosity ; 
some with seriousness ; all respectfully. After read- 
ing a few pages, Mr. Hill made a short address, to 
which occasionally some gave assent ; and then he 
distributed a small bundle of tracts, which all seemed 
very eager to obtain. Several were disappointed. 
The scene was one of much interest to me. 

August 12. — After receiving much kindness from 
the missionary brethren and other Christian friends, 
I started from Berhampore and reached Moorsheda- 
bad. This city was formerly the capital of Bengal ; 
and is still a very large place, stretching five or six 
miles along the east shore of the river. It is, how- 
ever, greatly on the decline. Multitudes of the mud 
hovels are going to ruin, a process which in this cli- 
mate is very rapid, where the materials are so 
perishable. There are few good buildings in Moor- 



shedabad, and scarcely any now building. A very 
extensive palace, which is now building for the na- 
bob, is almost the only new public edifice I saw. 
There are a number of temples and mosques ; but 
they wear the aspect of neglect and decay. The 
nabob of Bengal, who resides here, receives a large 
pension from the Company, instead of the sovereignty 
to which, under native rule, he would have been 
heir. He is said to be a young man of exceedingly 
dissipated habits ; so that his influence amongst his 
countrymen is very injurious. He takes little inte- 
rest in political matters, and is anxious apparently 
to live only a luxurious, sensual life. 

Moorshedabad is the seat of considerable native 
trade ; and, in this neighborhood, it is said a greater 
amount of silk is woven into different fabrics than at 
any other place. It is also the head-quarters of a 
circuit court ; but the magistrates reside at Berham- 
pore, nine miles below. The London Missionary 
Society has recently sent a Catechist to this place ; 
but no particular results are yet manifest from his 
efforts. The missionaries at Berhampore occasion- 
ally visit it. It seems to require much greater atten- 
tion from the Christian world than it has yet received. 
But this is too true of many cities in India. A large 
proportion of the people of this place are Mussulmans. 

August 16. — Our progress has been very slow, 
owing to light winds, which afforded little aid in 
stemming the rapid current of the river. While 
slowly toiling along this afternoon, two of the nabob's 
pleasure boats passed us. They are of a singtilar 



structure, very long, very narrow, built almost on 
the model of a large Indian canoe ; but with very 
high prow and stern, which were richly ornamented. 
A highly finished awning was spread over the middle 
of the boats, affording a screen for two or three per- 
sons from the sun. The rest of the boats, fore and 
aft, was occupied by rowers, to the number of thirty 
or forty to each boat. These rowers kept admirable 
time ; as they lifted their paddles out of the water, 
quickly performed a circuit with them through the 
air, raising them above their heads, and then all at 
the same moment striking them into the water again ; 
thus propelling the boat seven or eight miles an hour 
against the current. They formed a great contrast 
to the awkward budgerow, slowly moving along the 

To-day I passed Jungipore, the greatest silk station 
of the East India Company. Hamilton remarks, 
that "the buildings were erected here in 1773, and 
in 1803 about three hundred thousand persons were 
employed. They use the Italian method of spinning. 
The mulberry tree is the oriental ; it is dwarfish, 
and the leaves but indifferent ; to which is attributed 
a degeneracy in the breeds that have been introducd 
from foreign countries." 

August 17, Lord's Day. — We lay to, at a native 
village, a short distance above Jungipore. A num- 
ber of people, hearing that there was a " Padre 
Sahib" who gave away tracts, came to ask for them ; 
and one was given probably to nearly every person 
in the town who was able to read. A Brahman set 




the example, though at first evidently at the expense 
of some struggles between his pride and his curiosity ; 
but afterwards he brought others of the same caste. 
It is a cause of thankfulness that they are willing to 
receive and to read our religious books. Some very 
pleasing boys interested me much. They belonged 
to families of the higher classes ; had fine, animated, 
intelligent countenances ; and were much gratified 
by a tract to each one ; which they read with great 
fluency, and which they forthwith ran to show to 
their parents. They reminded me of some of my 
former Sunday School scholars. Would that these 
heathen boys were as highly favored ! 

From this place there is a distant view of the Raj - 
mahal Hills, the sight of which was very grateful to 
the eye, wearied with the sameness of the dead level 
country of Bengal. From this village our next day's 
sail was over what Bishop Heber would call " a 
miserable drowned country." Frequently nothing 
was to be seen in any direction but water, with the 
exception of an occasional village or slightly elevated 
ground, and perhaps the tops of a few straggling 
trees. In such places the current is very slow ; as 
its force is lost in the dispersion of the overflowing 
waters. The water of the Ganges, and of course, of 
all its outlets, is extremely muddy. The clayey 
sediment held in solution during the rainy season is 
very large. Much of this sediment is deposited on 
the land which is overflowed, and forms a very rich 
manure. After the waters subside, and under a hot 
sun, in this soil the extensive crops of rice and dal 



luxuriate with great delight, at least to the owners. 
We made fast, for the night, to a tree in the midst 
of the waters, and found, the next morning, that the 
river had subsided a little during the night. 





The great Ganges — Raj-mahal Hills — Mussulmans and Hindus com- 
pared — Anecdote of Caste — Danger from a gale — Bhagulpore — 
Spirit of lying — Native boatmen — Monghir — Patna — Dinapore. 

August 19. — After passing through a narrow chan- 
nel, with lofty trees on each shore, and then for a few 
miles through an open country, we entered on the 
Burra Gunga of the natives, the main branch of the 
Ganges. The river is here, at this season of the 
year, from three to four miles wide, and presents 
truly a grand appearance. The idea of irresistible 
power is strongly impressed on the mind of the 
observer. The mighty river rolls along in majesty, 
rapidly, but tranquilly, as if regardless of all the 
world besides. It is one of God's greatest works ; 
and the innumerable native boats, which are seen 
sailing close by the shore, render the contrast be- 
tween his works and the works of man very striking. 

The latter are little, feeble, and apparently in con- 
stant dread of the overwhelming power of the river 
in whose waters they venture to sail. Our boatmen 
seemed to feel themselves in the presence of one of 
the Gods of their countrymen ; but being Mussul- 



mans, they only poured out some water on the prow 
of the boat, and then repeated with double energy 
their usual prayer to " Allah, 'la, 'la 'la-h." I do not 
wonder that the ignorant mind of the heathen should 
become superstitious on beholding this vast body of 

This may be a proper place to introduce some 
notices of a river whose sacredness is so great in 
India, and whose fame is so widely spread through 
other lands. I take them chiefly from Hamilton. 
The course of the Ganges is on the southern side of 
the great Himalaya range of mountains. It has been 
traced to a short distance above the place of Hindu 
pilgrimage, Gangoutri. Two miles above this place 
is the "Cow's Mouth," about which the natives have 
various fables. It is merely a large stone in the 
middle of the river, of which a part projects above 
the water ; and with the aid of a lively fancy, may 
be supposed to resemble the mouth of that sacred 
animal. The pilgrimage of Gangoutri is considered 
a great exertion of Hindu devotion ; and is supposed 
to redeem the performer from troubles in this world, 
and to insure a happy transit through all the trans- 
migrations that await him hereafter. After issuing 
from the mountains near Hurdwar, Lat. 29^ 57', 
Long. 78° 2' East, to the conflux with the Jumna at 
Allahabad, the first large river that joins it, the bed 
of the Ganges is generally from a mile to one and a 
quarter wide. From hence its course becomes more 
winding, until after receiving the Gogra, the Soane, 



and other smaller streams, its channel attains its full 
width, which in some parts is three miles across. 
When at the lowest, it is commonly about three 
fourths of a mile in width. During the rains, the 
width is of course greatly increased ; as the Ganges 
rises about thirty-two feet, and the banks are low, 
and the country level for a great part of its course ; 
so that the waters spread widely. The Ganges ap- 
pears to owe its increase more to the melting of the 
snow and the rains on the mountains, than to the 
rains which fall on the plains ; for it rises fifteen 
feet out of thirty-two by the latter end of June, and 
the rainy season does not fully begin in the most of 
the level countries until about that time. 

About two hundred miles from the sea the Delta 
commences. The two most western branches, the 
Cossimbazar, or Bhagirathi, and Jellinghi rivers, 
unite and form the Hoogley, the only branch of the 
Ganges generally navigated by ships. That part of 
the Delta bordering on the sea is composed of a 
labyrinth of rivers and creeks, named the Sunder- 
bunds, which, including the rivers that bound it, give 
an expansion of two hundred miles to the branches 
of the Ganges at its junction with the sea. Its 
whole length is fifteen hundred miles in a direct line ; 
its actual length is much greater. By the latter end 
of July, all the lower parts of Bengal contiguous to 
the Ganges and Brahmaputra are overflowed, and 
form an inundation of more than one hundred miles 
in width, nothing appearing but villages and trees. 
At five hundred miles from the sea the channel is 



thirty-nine feet deep when the river is at the lowest ; 
which depth continues nearly to the sea ; but the 
outlet of the main branch is obstructed by sand-bars 
In the dry season, the mean rate of motion of the 
current is less than three miles an hour ; in the wet 
season, five or six ; and, at some places, seven or 
eight. Taking the medium of the whole year, the 
quantity of the water discharged is nearly one hun- 
dred and eighty thousand feet per second of time. 

It is only that part of the river which lies in a 
line between Gangoutri, where its feeble stream 
issues from the Himalaya snows, to Saugor Island 
below Calcutta, that is particularly sacred in the 
eyes of the Hindu. The Hoogley river, therefore, 
of Europeans is considered the true Ganges. Par- 
ticular places are esteemed more eminently holy 
than the rest ; and to these pilgrims resort from a 
distance, to perform their ablutions, and to obtain 
the water that is used in their ceremonies. The 
chief of these are the five Prayags, or holy junctions 
of rivers, of which Allahabad is the principal, and by 
way of distinction is named Prayag. Including 
these Prayags, there are nine especially holy places 
on this river. 

Having a moderate wind, the boat-people were 
anxious to go on until a later hour than usual, there 
being moonlight, though obscured by passing clouds. 
Accordingly, we sailed along the edge of the river 
until after eight o'clock. The country seemed to be 
extensively covered with water ; and where the 



land was visible, it was so saturated with the rains 
that had fallen as to afford no firm ground for mak- 
ing the boat fast for the night — which is done by 
means of ropes attached to several stakes driven into 
the ground. At last, the men moored the boat at a 
place which they thought suitable. About mid- 
night, I heard them making a great noise ; and on 
going out, found that the fastenings were giving way, 
while the wind had become very high, and a densely 
black cloud was threatening a furious gale. No 
time was to be lost ; and, with all hands hard at 
work, we got the boat moved a short distance and 
made fast at another place. If the giving way of 
the moorings had not been discovered in time, there 
would have been little hope of being saved. As it 
was, the danger was very great. 

August 20. — We approached Raj-mahal. The 
range of hills which bear this name have been in 
sight for two or three days. They resemble some of 
the parallel ranges of the Alleghany Mountains, and 
their appearance is very beautiful. Their general 
direction is southward from this place, though inclin- 
ing a good deal to the east. Their range above the 
town of Raj-mahal is quite to the westward of 
north. The river washes their base from a consider- 
able distance above to this town ; but soon afterwards 
its waters, as if wearied with the fruitless effort to 
remove these mountains, roll away in an easterly 

These hills are inhabited by a distinct race of peo- 
ple, called Paharis, which simply means hill-people. 



They are supposed by many to be the aboriginal 
inhabitants. They have no idols, and pay a much 
greater regard to truth than the Hindus. Their 
mode of life is less refined ; their language is differ- 
ent, and has not been reduced to writing. A Bap- 
tist missionary from Munghir has made one or two 
excursions among them ; and speaks favorably of 
their candor and willingness :o listen to his discourses 
concerning the true religion. Their number cannot 
be very great. Raj-mahal was formerly the resi- 
dence of royalty, and some old palaces still remain, 
but in a state of great decay. The present town 
contains perhaps a few thousand inhabitants. The 
people begin to wear an appearance less effeminate 
than that which characterizes the Bengalis. 

August 21. — We passed Sicly Gully and PirPontf 
— both of them places to which the attention of the 
traveller on this river is directed as possessing 
novelty, no small recommendation where every thincj 
is marked by sameness. The former was once a 
celebrated })ass, commanding the entrance from 
Bahar into Bengal. It commands a fine view of the 
hills and of the river. Pi'r Ponti is the name given 
to a detached hill, on account of a Mussulman saint. 
Father or St. Ponti, who was buried there. There 
is also a small but rather neat Hindu temf)le to Maha 
Dev, about half way up the hill, which is conspicu- 
ous and pleasing in its appearance. It stands on 
a little knoll jutting out from the hill, while on each 
side, below and above, the deep green of the dense 



woods contrasts strongly with the white walls of 
the temple. 

It is very common, especially in towns of some 
size, to see the holy places of Hindus and Mussul- 
mans thus immediately in contact. You see a tem- 
ple at one corner, and a mosque at the next. But, 
in the smaller towns, it is more common to find each 
class distinct ; either all Mussulmans or all Hindus. 
The average proportion of Hindus who are fol- 
lowers of Mohammed to those who are pagans, is 
said to be about one to ten. The further to the 
northwest we go, the larger does the proportion of 
Mussulmans become. In the " Upper Provinces," 
as they are termed, as Oude, Allahabad, Agra, Delhi, 
&c., I understand that the more wealthy and intel- 
ligent inhabitants are generally Mussulmans. In the 
Western, or Rajput Provinces, Hinduism is said 
greatly to predominate. This is easily to be 
accounted for ; as those regions were never so 
entirely subject to the rule of the Patan and Mogul 
conquerors as were the Upper Provinces. The two 
classes, in the Lower Provinces, resemble each other 
in ignorance, in vice, and rigid adherence to caste. 
They differ chiefly in their external mode of wor- 
ship ; though among the great mass of the people, 
their observances are, in both cases, an unintelligible 
round of ceremonies, alike unmeaning and useless. 
The two best things in the Hindu religion seem to be 
the ablutions, or rather bathings, and the prohibition 
of most kinds of animal food, regulations which are 



certainly useful in a hot climate like this, as they 
secure a certain degree of cleanliness and of tem- 
perance. These are both wanting in the Mussulman 
system ; yet custom secures the former, and poverty 
the latter. On the whole, I am disposed to think 
that there is not much difference between the two 
systems in the Lower Provinces of the Bengal 
Presidency, in their effects on the morals or the 
minds of their votaries. Probably the Mussulman 
part of the community have some advantages over 
their neighbors in being permitted to keep fowls, 
&c. Small as this item is, it is a matter of consi- 
derable importance among a people so very poor, and 
so very densely settled. 

It is rather singular to see the Mussulmans so 
tenacious of caste. My boat-people and servants are 
all Mussulmans ; and yet I have to be as careful not 
to pollute their food by touching it in any way as if 
they were Hindus. A Httle terrier dog, given to me 
by a lady at Berhampore, and which is quite a 
favorite amongst the men, gave great offence one 
afternoon. Having swum from the shore, when he 
got on deck he very naturally shook off the water, 
and a drop or two fell on the servants' chipatis, flat 
cakes of bread, which they were just getting ready 
for their dinner. Forthwith, a clamor was raised ; 
the little dog scampered off to the cabin ; and the 
poor cakes of bread were forthwith pitched over- 
board by the men with much indignation. 

The prevalence of caste among both pagan and 
Mohammedan Hindus serves to show that it is a 



civil institution in some sense, though invented by 
the Brahmans as an essential part of their rehgious 
system. The Mussuhiians doubtless retain in some 
degree the religious character of their heathen coun- 
trymen ; and the civil institutions and social obser- 
vances, as well as the literature of the people of this 
country, are all inseparably intervoven with their 

Leaving Pir Ponti, we sailed over a broad expanse 
of water, in order to get to the other side ; for the 
boatmen on this river seldom steer their boats in the 
middle of the channel, but creep along close by the 
shore. At the place where we crossed, the river is 
probably three or four miles wide. While in the 
middle of the channel, a gale sprang up suddenly, 
and struck the boat on the foreside, coming partly in 
the same course as the current. We were carried 
obliquely down the current with fearful rapidity for 
two or three miles, until all at once we were brought 
to" by being dashed violently against the low shore. 
The shock was so great that it was with difficulty I 
could keep on my feet ; while chairs, books, plates, 
pitchers, glasses, were scattered over the cabin floor 
in great confusion. I felt extremely grateful to the 
kind Providence which preserved us. Often in such 
sudden gales, boats founder at once, and all on board 

The scenery on the south side of the river, in this 
place, is very beautiful. A low range of irregular 
liills stretches along for several miles, among which 
the eye is delighted to see some pretty little brooks 



hastening to pay their tribute to the great river. 
How beautiful the Scripture language about " living 
v^^ater," that is, not standing pools, but running 
streams, than which there is no more refreshing and 
pleasing object in eastern countries. Their water is 
fresh and pure, ever flowing, and free to all, the poor 
and the rich ; while in the tanks or pools, and in the 
cisterns or wells, the water is usually stagnant and 
extremely dirty ; and frequently is accessible only to 
a limited number. God is our fountain of " living 
water," and Christ has promised his Holy Spirit to 
be as "rivers of living water." The allusion, we 
may suppose, is to the flowing streams that watered 
Palestine ; the true meaning points to higher bless- 
ings than earth can afford. 

On the opposite side of the river, the country is as 
flat and uninteresting as usual. Here, as elsewhere, 
large herds of buffaloes are to be seen grazing, under 
the care of a few poorly clad herdsmen. These 
animals are all of a dark color, a good deal larger 
than the common cow, with semicircular horns pro- 
jecting backward along the neck, and not so crooked 
as those of a ram, though resembling them in other 
respects. The buffaloes in this country seem to take 
as much pleasure in wallowing in a pond of mud 
and water as the less honored swine. Frequently in 
passing along, a person may see the noses and horns 
of many hundreds of them sticking up out of the 
water, in which they delight to remain during the 
hot part of the day. They are used, as are cows, in 
ploughing, harrowing, and carrying burdens. Their 



milk also is much used, but it is deemed a coarser 
fare than that of the cow. 

August 22. — Above Bhagulpore, we left the main 
body of water to the left, and passed several miles 
up a channel that has been formed within a few years, 
and which is much more direct. It is now a large 
river, and will most probably become the highway 
of the Ganges in a few years. Such changes are 
constantly taking place. One of the greatest obsta- 
cles to the navigation of this river by steamboats, is 
the constant changing of the channel and the forma- 
tion of new sand-bars, so that the most experienced 
pilot hardly knows where to guide his vessel ; while 
the muddy nature of the water renders useless any 
effort to see his way. 

Bhagulpore is an English civil station ; that is, it 
is the residence of an English collector, judge, sur- 
geon, and probably a few other officers, who collect 
the revenue of the district, and administer justice. 
Often the civil and military stations are at the same 
place ; though frequently this is not the case. The 
town is not large, but presents a pleasing appearance 
at the distance of two or three miles ; it contains a 
number of large houses, and the situation is rather 

August 23. — A trifling incident attracted my 
notice, as affording an illustration of the spirit of 
lying which pervades, according to all testimony, the 
entire Hindu people. Our boat was moored to the 
bank, with several others, and many men were busy 
on the shore preparing their dinner. A fowl made its 
escape from the coop on one of the boats, and taking 



its flight in a little circle before the people, happened 
to alight near an old grey-headed man, who was 
cleaving wood. A boy ran after tliis stray chicken 
to bring it back, when the old man ordered him off, 
roundly asserting that the fowl was his, and had 
escaped from his boat ; though he was a Hindu, to 
whom it would have been worse than death to have 
eaten the unclean bird, for which he was so willing 
to tell a lie. The owner did not give up his right ; 
but the incident seemed to be looked on as a matter 
of course. 

August 25. — We have made little progress for 
several days, on account of strong current and no 
wind. We are now lying below Jangera, one of the 
few places of note on this river. It is remarkable for 
two large rocks which project out some distance into 
the river, and are distant from each other about one 
hundred yards. On the top of one is built a mosque, 
and on the other a temple. The former is now in 

August 26. — At our place of mooring this even- 
ing, there were many native boats, and I counted 
nearly a hundred people belonging to them. Only 
one man among them all could read the tracts I 
offered, and he very imperfectly ; and yet in each 
boat there are usually one or two respectable men. 
These boats are commonly laden with return cargoes 
of various native goods and wares from Calcutta to 
different places up the country. The head man of 
one of the boats came to tell me he had some English 
goods to sell. Feeling a curiosity to know of what 



description they were, I went on board, and found a 
box of old Windsor soap and a cracked bottle of 
arrow-root. The rest of his cargo was entirely 
native. The chief articles in the native trade seem 
to be salt, rice, various kinds of pulse, cotton, coarse 
cotton fabrics, sugar, mustard, oil, &c. We fre- 
quently see boats laden with earthenware vessels ; 
and less frequently now than lower down, many 
boats employed in carrying the indigo plant, which 
looks somewhat like long coarse grass, to the nearest 
factory. Many boats are filled with European stores 
for the various stations up the country. These boats 
are always hired, freighted, and insured by some mer- 
cantile house in Calcutta. 

One is surprised at the lowness of the wages paid 
to the boatmen. It is indeed wonderful that they can 
live and support their families on such terms. The 
common wages are three rupees per month to the 
men, equal nearly to a dollar and a half of American 
money, and four rupees to the manjhi, or head man 
out of which they must purchase their own food and 
clothing, and pay all their expenses of every kind ; 
as they have no other means of support. And 
although these poor fellows work at a great disad- 
vantage, on account of their very awkward boats, 
and still more rude means of propelling them ; yet 
bating something for the irregular habits of heathen, 
I have scarcely ever seen harder working men. 
They are daily at work from sunrise to sunset, 
pulling, pushing, wading sometimes in mud, often in 
water above their waist, exposed all the time to an 



intensely hot sun ; and their onl}^ reward is a pittance 
which enables them to buy their rice to eat, and their 
tobacco or their opium to smoke in their huka, and 
perhaps once in six months, a piece of coarse cotton 
muslin, two or three yards long by three fourths 
of a yard wide, for a new suit of clothes. These 
boatmen deserve great commiseration. They are 
a peaceful, hard-working, and obliging race ; but 
they are compelled to live nearly at the lowest point 
of human subsistence. Their minds are perfectly 
blank as to all elevating knowledge ; their morals are 
what might be expected, where the heart is left 
utterly uninfluenced by the Gospel, and uncultivated 
by good agency of any kind ; and their prospects as 
to the future world afford nothing whatever to sup- 
port them under the hardships, or comfort them 
under the sorrows, of their existence in this life. 

August 27. — We reached Munghir. For the last 
eight or ten miles, the river has been separated into 
various channels, so that, at the place where we 
were moored last night, the broadest was not more 
than a quarter of a mile'wide. Just before reaching 
this town, the new iron steamboat, which was launched 
a few months ago at Calcutta, passed the budgerow, 
bound to Allahabad. This is said to be the second 
time a steamer has attempted to ascend any distance 
on the Ganges, and it is the first attempt to come so 
high as this place. I have already mentioned some 
of the difficulties attending the navigation of this 
river. This vessel moves at rather a slow rate 
against the current. But it is a small-sized boat, 




and has in tow a baggage-boat, as large as the 
steamer itself. 

Munghir presents a very pleasing appearance, as 
a person approaches it from the river. It stands on 
a kind of promontory, at the south-east extremity of 
an island formed by the river, and its situation is 
elevated — an advantage possessed by few Indian 
tow^ns. It was formerly a place of considerable 
strength, in the wars between native kings ; and the 
extensive walls of the fort, which are yet remaining, 
must have proved almost impregnable to a native 
army. Its aspect now is more peaceful and more 
pleasing, as the fort has been allowed to go to decay, 
and some good looking European houses have been 
erected on the high knolls in its inclosure. The native 
town seems to be prospering, and the people are driv- 
ing an active business in the various kinds of iron 
manufactures, for which this place has long been cele- 
brated. Fowling-pieces, pistols, kettles, knives, &c., 
are made with great neatness, and at low prices, but 
are said to be apt to break, on account of the bad 
materials from which they ai<e made. 

There is a branch of the Baptist mission at this 
place, with two Baptist missionaries, and their fami- 
lies. One of them is actively employed in various 
efforts to extend the Gospel among the heathen, and 
has a small church of some twenty native converts. 
There is also an English service on Sundays, and 
on one or two evenings during the week. Munghir 
is two hundred and seventy-five miles by land from 
Calcutta, and probably four hundred miles by the river. 



August 30. — A few miles below Bahar. We are 
fully entered into the great plain of Hindusthan, or 
Hindusthan proper. A pleasing range of hills, the 
Gorruckpore, were in sight the first two days after 
leaving Munghir. But now, we may bid farewell to 
hills for many hundred miles to come. The banks 
of the river have presented an almost continuous 
succession of villages; and the people are a hardier 
and more manly looking race than the Bengalis. 
/ The province of Bahar, which forms the western 
boundary of Bengal, is one of the largest in this 
Presidency. The soil is of a drier nature, and the 
climate is said to be more temperate than in Bengal, 
though the hot winds from the westward extend over 
part of this province. In some parts the proportion 
between the Mussulmans and Hindus is one of the 
former to three of the latter. The celebrated place 
of Hindu pilgrimage, Guya, is in the south part of 
this province, about fifty miles south from Patna. 
Formerly the East India Company collected an 
annual sum equal to eighty thousand dollars, from a 
small tax on each pilgrim. It derives its holiness 
from having been the birth-place of some of the gods. 
This is the chief region of the opium and saltpetre 
manufactures ; and instead of the immense fields of 
rice which tire the eye in Bengal, we now begin to 
see wheat and barley. The town of Bahar, or Bar, 
is an old and ruinous looking place, but of consider- 
able size, thirty-five miles south-east from Patna. 

September 1. — Having had a fine wind, and the 
course of the river being very direct from Bar, I 



reached Patna this morning — about three hundred 
and seventy miles by land, and five hundred or five 
hundred and fifty by water, from Calcutta. The 
appearance of this city from the river is certainly supe- 
rior to that of most India towns I have yet seen. It is 
built chiefly along one street, on the south bank of the 
river, which is here more than usually elevated above 
the water ; and many of the houses are quite large, 
constructed of brick, and abutting on the river. 
Yet a nearer view shows that many of the buildings 
are going to ruin, while scarcely any of them are in 
a better style than is often seen in Hindu buildings 
elsewhere. The population is variously estimated. 
Probably it is not less than one hundred and fifty 
thousand. The number is so large that the city 
extends six or seven miles along the river ; though 
in no part is the width more than one half or three 
fourths of a mile. Among the manufactures of this 
city, a kind of cloth resembling diaper and damask 
linens, and wax candles, are of most note in other 
parts of India. The East India Company have some 
of their depots for opium at this place ; of which 
article, as of salt, they retain the monopoly. 

There are two missionaries at Patna ; one a very 
devoted, interesting gentleman of fortune, who is not 
in connexion with any society ; the other a Baptist. 
Neither of them has been very long here, and they 
have not as yet had the privilege of seeing any con- 
verts from among the Heathen. The Sikhs have a 
place of worship at Patna of considerable repute. 
It would be interesting to ascertain how this solitary 



branch of that religion was planted so*far from the 
parent stock. After staying a few hours with a kind 
Christian family to whom I had letters, and where I 
had the additional pleasure of meeting the former 
mentioned missionary, I started again in the after- 
noon, and made a few miles, mooring for the night 
opposite Hankipur. 

September 2. — Passing Bankipur, where the civil 
servants of the Company, engaged in administering 
justice and collecting the revenue, chiefly reside, 
and then passing Dighah, I stopped between the 
latter place and Dinapore, and spent the rest of the 
day with another Baptist missionary who is stationed 
at this place. Here I enjoyed the satisfaction of 
much Christian intercourse with this family, and the 
other Baptist missionary, who had come to spend the 
day with them. These brethren, in addition to their 
duties among the Heathen in preaching or talking to 
them and distributing tracts, have each an English 
service attended by some of the Europeans or others 
who speak English. Patna, Bankipur, Dighah, and 
Dfnapore, form an almost continuous city of twelve 
or fifteen miles in length. Dighah is a considerable 
village, and Dinapore, the scene of Henry Martyn's 
pious labors, is one of the largest military stations ; 
it has also a native population of probably fifteen 
or twenty thousand. There is usually a King's 
regiment, a Company's regiment, and a large artil- 
lery detachment of European soldiers, at this post, 
who have fine substantial barracks. The church 
also makes a good appearance. With the chaplain 

108 JOURNEY TO lodiana: 

I did not become acquainted. From all 1 have 
heard, religious matters are in a condition but little 
if any better than when the faithful Martyn was 
here, or than is described in the Journal of Bishop 





Rivers and towns — Attar of Roses — Danger from falling banks — 
Benares — Allahabad, example of fatal superstition — Review of the 
river journey — Dak travelling — Agra — Delhi — Arrive at Lodiana. 

Septe?nber 3. — This morning, there was a fine 
breeze which raised quite a sea in the broad expanse 
of water over which we sailed. The river is here 
several miles wide at this season. In the course of 
to-day's sail, we passed the mouths of three large 
rivers which enter the Ganges ; the Gunduk, which 
is said to take its rise in Thibet, and in whose waters 
the stricter Hindus are forbidden to bathe ; the 
Gogra, also from the Himalaya mountains, after a 
course of five hundred miles ; and the Soane, from 
the south, after an equally long journey. But, owing 
to the lowness of the banks, and the extent to which 
the waters are spread over the face of the country, 
I could not distinguish the places where their streams 
unite with the great river. 

About twenty miles above Dinapore, we passed 
Chaprah, a fine looking native town, of some thirty 
thousand inhabitants, situated on the north bank of 
the river. It is the capital of the district of Saran, 



in the province of Bahar, and is the residence of an 
English magistrate, a collector, and probably a sur- 
geon. This town presents many advantages as a 
situation for a mission family. The district of which 
it is the chief town contains twenty-five hundred 
square miles, and its population in 1801 was esti- 
mated by the Governor-General from revenue statis- 
tics at one million two hundred thousand souls. 
Probably, the number at present is not less than a 
million and a half 

September 4. — In the evening, we reached Buxar, 
where there is a dismantled fort, the situation of 
which completely commands the river, contracted 
here to little more than a quarter of a mile in width. 
Buxar is one of the stations for invalid soldiers ; of 
whom there is always a considerable number under 
proper officers. It is also one of the places where 
the Company have an establishment for rearing 
horses for the cavalry. The native town is quite 
large, and chiefly composed of Mussulmans. 

September 5. — We passed to-day the mouth of the 
Karamnasa river, said to be a small winding stream. 
For the reason which prevented my seeing the place 
of junction of the Soane, I did not enjoy the gratifi- 
cation of seeing that of this river with the Ganges. 
The banks of the Ganges are now higher, the trees 
fewer, and the innumerable villages more uniformly 
characterized by having a tope or grove of mango 
trees in their immediate vicinity. 

September 8. — On the evening of the sixth, I 
reached Ghazeepore and spent the Sunday with the 




chaplain, a pious, amiable, and excellent man ; in 
whose family I had the pleasure of meeting two or 
three officers, connected with the military at this 
station. This is both a military and a civil station. ^ 
As there is usually a regiment of European soldiers 
in the barracks, there is a chaplain and a church. 
But for the service of the natives, amounting to 
many thousands, perhaps fifty thousand, there is 
neither missionary nor any kind of agency employed. 
This is an important station for a mission family ; as 
there are no missionaries nearer than Benares, which 
is forty miles distant, while the population of this 
district is as dense as usual. The town is considered 
one of the most healthy in India, which I should 
think very probable from the high open ground on 
which it stands. Of the native inhabitants rather a 
large portion are Mussulmans ; but in the country 
they do not average more than one eighth of the 
people. The character of the people of this town 
is rather unfavorably noted. They are spoken of as 
lawless and ready for acts of violence. 

The country around is extensively covered with 
rose bushes, which are cultivated for the purpose of 
manufacturing rose water, and the famous attar of 
roses. To produce a quantity of the latter equal in 
weight to rather less than half an ounce, it is said 
that twenty thousand grown roses are required, and 
the price of that quantity is about fifty dollars. The 
attar is obtained by skimming off' the oil, which is 
found on the surface of the rose water after being 
exposed all night to the open air, 




To-day, we got under sail again ; but the wind 
being very light, and the current very strong, the 
men were soon obliged to go on shore with the rope. 
We were to-day frequently exposed to one of the 
greatest dangers of travelling on this river. The 
banks are often high, crumbling, and ready to fall 
into the water. By the tow rope the boat is dragged 
close to the bank, whilst the heavy tramp of the men 
in puUing, and the rubbing of the rope on the edge 
of the bank, frequently detach large masses of 
ground. The danger is, that they may fall on the 
top of the poor boat ; in which case it would almost 
certainly founder. This afternoon, the risk appeared 
so great that 1 thought it best to leave the boat and 
walk some miles. The sun w^as covered with clouds, 
so that I did not experience the evil influence which 
invariably attends exposure to his rays at this season 
of the year. 

September 9. — We passed a Conductor's fleet of 
boats, some thirty or forty, carrying military stores 
to diflerent stations of the army. We passed also 
the native town of Seidpur, a place of some business. 
No incidents of much interest occured. 

September 11. — We reached the far-famed city, 
Benares, The appearance of this city is certainly 
very fine, as one approaches it on the river. It 
stands on a high bank, perhaps thirty feet above 
the water, on the inner side of the crescent, or semi- 
circular sweep, which the river here makes of some 
three or four miles ; so that, at one glance, a person 
can see the entire river view of the city. This view 



is quite singular, without anything to resemble it, 
much less to rival it. The houses are built close to 
the edges of the bank. Numerous temples stand 
also on the same eminence, while many ghats, or 
landing places, of stone steps, leading from the water 
up to the top of the bank, some of them very large, 
are covered with crowds of worshippers bathing or 
washing in the holy river. 

But it is in the city itself that a person sees how 
entirely it is " given to idolatry." The streets are 
so narrow that neither carriage nor horse can enter 
them; at least, it is not expedient to attempt pene- 
trating them on horseback ; and, in a carriage, it is 
not practicable. As the houses are very high, never 
less than two stories, but more frequently five or 
six, there is an air of gloomy seriousness, befitting 
the holy place of such a religion. At every corner 
and turn, the eye sees temples and pagodas, of all 
sizes, and of every kind of structure. In the streets 
many fat, lazy, tame Brahmany bulls are walking 
about at their leisure ; and beggars, and devotees, 
and Brahmans, are not less numerous. The walls 
of the houses often present rude paintings of the 
different gods and goddesses, with their various 
transformations and exploits, their many arms and 
weapons ; and, in the raised narrow projections, at 
the doors of the houses, and in the inner corners of 
streets, are sitting numerous persons, selling flowers 
and beads for the accommodation of the multitude 
of worshippers. In the temples there are always 
numerous Brahmans ; some reading in Ichid, chainting 



tones, the shasters ; others, besmearing an obscene 
image with oil, and decorating it with flowers ; others, 
pouring Ubations of holy water from the Ganges on 
the idols, and on different places in the temple ; 
■while not unfrequently a crowd of holy beggars, 
looking like demons through chalk and cow-dung, 
make a person almost deaf with their incessant 
repetition of Ram ! Ram ! Ram ! 

Benares is held as sacred for ten miles round, but 
particular places in it are accounted peculiarly holy. 
One visit to this city secures for the pilgrim a sure 
admission into heaven. Many resort here from all 
parts of India, to finish their days ; and so great is 
the fame of its holiness that many Rajahs have vakils 
residing here, to perform for them the requisite cere- 
monies and ablutions. It is said that within this 
city are a million of images of an obscene image. If 
true, or even near the truth, this estimate conveys a 
mournful idea of the state of morals. The mosque 
built by Aurengzebe is the highest edifice, the mina- 
rets being upwards of two hundred feet high. It 
was built to mortify the Hindus, and is erected on 
the site of one of their most holy temples. The 
view from the top is very extensive and interesting. 

Among the various buildings of some interest is 
an old Observatory, where may be seen a large 
gnomon of stone and some other instruments. 
Benares is not merely the Jerusalem of the Hindus; 
it is also their Athens. There are many private 
schools in which Sanscrit is studied under learned 
Brahman Pandits, who are supported by native 



princes and other wealthy Hindus. There is also 
a Hindu College, in which are taught the various 
branches of Hindu learning, not excepting astrology, 
nor the astronomy of Ptolemy, nor the geography 
which teaches that the earth is supported by the 
tortoise " chakwa," and that mount Meru, standing 
in the centre of the vast plain which forms the 
earth's surface, supports the seven heavens. It 
is said to have eight or ten professors, and about 
two hundred students. The superintendent is an 

The population has been estimated at upwards of 
five hundred thousand ; but many suppose that 
it does not exceed three hundred thousand. At 
particular festivals the concourse is great beyond any 
computation. The European residents live in 
Secrole, one of the suburbs, about three miles distant 
from the chief part of the city. There is also a 
regiment of sepoys stationed there, and a chaplain. 

There are seven missionaries at this city ; three 
of the Church Society, and one superintendent of 
a large English and Persian school, founded by a 
wealthy native, but committed to the management 
of that Society ; three of the London Missionary 
Society, who have a small chapel and stated service 
in the city ; and one of the Serampore Baptist So- 
ciety, who resides in the city, and has a room in his 
own house fitted for a chapel. Usually these bre- 
thren go every day to the city, and talk with the 
people, and give religious books and tracts to those 
who they think will make a good use of them. 



Though they have not yet had any conversions, 
they all say that they are heard with more attention 
and seriousness now than a few years ago. 

Of the journey above Benares, I will give some 
notices from letters written at different places. 
From Benares, passing Chunar, Mirzapore, and 
other native towns, I reached Allahabad on the 23d 
of September. From a letter written on the next 
day to the Secretary of the Society, the following 
extract is taken : 

" The junction of the Ganges and Jumna, you 
know, is regarded by the Hindus as one of the most 
holy places in the sacred river. As the Jumna is 
not an object of worship, I hardly know how the 
opinion has originated that the goddess Gunga, or 
Ganges, should derive an accession of holiness from 
her union with that river. Nor is there anything in 
the natural scenery of the place peculiarly impres- 
sive. The country is level on both sides, though 
not so flat as in Bengal, and the two rivers unite 
without occasioning, even at this season when both 
are much swollen, any great noise or large waves. 
We behold with interest two large rivers flowing 
together, but apart from that, there is not so much 
to excite ideas of power in the junction of these 
rivers as of the Alleghany and Monongahela. 

" Till a few years ago it was quite common for the 
deluded worshippers, many of them, to drown them- 
selves at this place, supposing that thereby the pos- 
session of heaven was rendered certain. The boat, 
in which they were accustomed to go to the proper 



place to take their departure, came at last into the 
possession of an old woman, some time before the 
English authorities interfered to put a stop to the 
custom, and she " by that craft had her wealth." Of 
course she did not relish a change which would take 
away her income, and earnestly contended that 
people had a right to drown themselves if they 
pleased. The magistrate was firm, and while he did 
not directly oppose the custom, he informed all con- 
cerned that he would punish with death any who 
should, in any way, be accessary to their destruc- 
tion. This simple measure brought the custom to 
an end. This occurred but a few years ago. I 
could not but feel sad at heart while sailing over the 
place where many of our fellow creatures * rushed 
unbidden' into the presence of their final Judge, 
hoping to secure his favor by an act of sin, assured 
of heaven while on the way to a widely different 
destiny. And though the practice no longer exists, 
yet the creed does in all its blighting influence. Oh, 
soon may the knowledge of the true way of happi- 
ness be spread amongst this people ! Incidents like 
these sacrifices, and like the swinging by hooks in- 
serted in the muscles of the back, of which I saw an 
example last spring, would seem to show that the 
promptings of natural conscience are very strong, 
even where great ignorance exists. However much 
may be ascribed to motives of vainglory in the ap- 
plause of men, and to the influence of stupefying 
doses of opium, yet the foundation of these customs 
lies much deeper. Their origin and continued 



existence show that the witness which God has 
created in the bosom of every man (see Acts xiv. 
17, compared with Rom. i. 20), still performs its 
duty. Such proofs of the power of natural con- 
science should encourage missionaries in their 
addresses to the heathen, to make pointed appeals 
to it." 

From Cawnpore, where the river part of the 
journey was ended on the 9th of October, a letter 
was sent to the same gentleman, of which a part is 
annexed : 

" A journey on this river affords to those who can 
speak the language many opportunities of usefulness 
to the natives. Villages are thickly studded along 
the banks ; many boats are often moored at the 
same place with yours ; generally during daylight, 
and often at night too, the people live in the open 
air, and are very willing to listen to your instruc- 
tions, and to receive your books, I distributed a 
good many tracts, and at times under circumstances 
which greatly affected my mind. On one Sabbath, 
a venerable aged Brahman, the chief man in the vil- 
lage where the boat was lying to, came to ask for a 
tract. He could not read himself, but said he would 
get his little grandson to read it for him, and he 
listened with much attention while I read a few 
pages. In coming up this river, a person should 
have some Bengali, and as many Hindui and Hin- 
dustani tracts as he can obtain, and also separate 
books of the sacred Scriptures. 

" A journey of this kind affords much leisure for 



personal improvement. The time is hardly ever 
less than two months and a half, often three months, 
during which but little occurs to prevent close appli- 
cation to reading, writing, &c. Few visits or calls 
to pay or to receive, few newspapers to spend the 
morning over, few objects of interest in the scenery 
around : the danger is rather that of having too 
much, than too little time for study. There is 
something also in this kind of life to promote the 
improvement of the heart in piety. Certainly the 
presence of so many visible dangers, and the pre- 
serving care of the Lord, often too obvious to be 
overlooked, ' in perils of waters — in perils by the 
heathen,' should call forth unfeigned gratitude, no 
less than humble confidence in the providence and 
grace of God. 

" There are few objects of interest to be seen in a 
journey on this river. The Raj-mahal, and the 
Gorruckpore Hills, and the city of Benai^es, ap- 
peared to me more interesting than anything else — 
the former, by reminding me of our 'lovely native 
land ;' the latter, because so perfectly unique, for I 
suppose it would be difficult to find another city 
with so many features peculiar to itself. In general, 
the country is very level, the banks of the river low 
and monotonous in appearance, the river itself as 
muddy as high rivers usually are, and less impetuous, 
and apparently quite unconscious of its divine cha- 
racter, and equally regardless of the worship it 
receives. As to the native villages and towns, when 
you have seen one, you have seen a specimen of 



nearly all. The great part of the houses are low 
mud cottages, with two low doors, and covered with 
thatch coming so low down in front as to form a 
sort of veranda, or open portico. Usually a great 
many low shady trees are found in their villages, and 
one or two large peepul trees. Around the foot of 
one of these a clay platform is erected, and there, 
under the wide spreading branches, in the afternoon, 
you may see most of the respectable villagers smok- 
ing their hukas, and probably discussing the poli- 
tics and news of the village. These are the places 
where a missionary should take his station, and 
direct their thoughts to heavenly themes. If he 
were prudent and kind in his manner, he would 
hardly ever fail to obtain a patient and respectful 

"One is much struck with the good taste these 
people have displayed in choosing the sites of their 
temples. These, in the country and in villages, are 
commonly small four, six, or eight sided buildings, of 
brick, covered with plaster, about ten or twelve feet 
high, surmounted by a dome and a short spire. 
They have seldom any other furniture than the idol, 
or emblems peculiar to the particular deity wor- 
shipped, though these are frequently of the most 
indecent description — too much so to be named 
openly, much less described. I have often admired 
the situation of the temples. Where there happens 
to be a high, bold bank to the river, you will very 
often see one of these small buildings standing, white 
and conspicuous, in the midst of two or three small 



trees of little more than its own height. At other 
times you see them in low places, under an over- 
spreading peepul, close by the water's edge, with a 
flight of steps leading down into the water. Per- 
haps a fine grove of open, round-topped trees, may 
form a back view of peculiar beauty. These Hindu 
places of worship, however, furnish nothing to im- 
prove either the intellect or the heart. Every asso- 
ciation, every thought awakened by the great majority 
of heathen temples, is demoralizing and ruinous to 
the soul. They furnish occasionally a place for the 
reading of shastras, which, in many cases, neither 
reader nor hearer understands. But even this is sel- 
dom done ; there is no stated assembling of the 
people to receive instruction ; there is neither scribe 
nor teacher ; neither book nor manuscript. The 
worshippers, after saying over by rote some dry 
names of gods, sprinkling a little water, and offering, 
perhaps, a few flowers to the idol, and if followers of 
Shiva, daubing his face with some mud, not for- 
getting sundry ablutions in the Ganges, when the 
temple is near it, then go away as ignorant as they 
came, and more depraved. 

" I ought to notice one other feature of a journey 
on this river — the intercourse with missionaries. At 
Serampore, Chinsurah, Cutwa, Berhampore, Monghyr, 
Patna, Digah, Benares, and Buxar, there are mis- 
sionaries, either of the Baptist, London, or Church 
Societies. It is necessary to stop at most of these 
places to obtain provisions, and the Christian kind- 
ness of these good people is very refreshing, while a 



knowledge of their plans and operations and expe- 
rience will be of great service. Everywhere it will 
be found that God regards the kind of heart with 
which he is served more than the kind of missionary 
organization. Here are the agents of voluntary and 
ecclesiastical societies ; all have been blessed, and 
the former certainly not more than the latter. But 
all can labor in love, and there is room and need 
for all, and for many more." 

From Cawnpore to Lodiana I proceeded by dak, 
travelling in a palanquin. From other letters a few 
notices are here inserted of this part of the journey : 

Delhi, October 27. — "At Cawnpore, I made a new 
disposal of my goods and chattels ; putting them on 
three hackeries, or rude carts, of three oxen each. 
The distance thence to Lodiana is about five hun- 
dred miles ; and the expense of transporting them 
will be considerably less than in the United States 
by a similar or laSd conveyance. As for myself, I 
had to decide on travelling by dak. In this manner 
one goes along, night and day, at the rate of four 
miles an hour. 

"At night a dak traveller presents a singular 
appearance. Foremost are the petarrah walas, or 
bundle-carriers ; of whom I have three, each man 
walking along with a peculiar fast gait, and carrying 
two bundles of twenty-five pounds each, swung at the 
ends of a stick over his shoulder. Then comes the 
traveller in his palanquin, borne by four men, who 
at every step make a peculiar unpleasant sound, a 



kind of grunt, by way of music ; while four others 
run by their side ; each set relieving the other about 
once in every five minutes. But the most singular 
appendage is the mussdlchi, or torch bearer, who 
runs along beside, carrying a large torch, on which 
he pours oil every few minutes, making a fine light. 
Every ten or twelve miles, a fresh set of men are 
stationed. The chief difficulty in this mode of tra- 
velling is its irksomeness, from one's always lying in 
the same position. Persons who cannot sleep at 
night are seldom able to endure the fatigue ; but I 
got along finely, sleeping as well as usual, until, at 
the end of their stages, the bearers w^ould awake me 
for their bakshish, or usual present of a few anas. 
From Cawnpore to Agra, a distance of about one 
hundred and ninety miles was travelled in fifty 
hours ; and from Agra to Delhi, one hundred and 
fifty miles in thirty-seven hours. 

" Agra and Delhi are the two chief cities of Upper 
India ; and are the richest in memorials of former 
greatness that I have ever seen. The Taj, at Agra, 
is a wonderfully chaste and beautiful monument to 
the favorite wife of a Moghul emperor. The main 
building stands on a white marble terrace or plat- 
form, and has four tall minarets or towers, of grace- 
ful structure, one at each corner of the terrace — all 
built of polished white marble. One side fronts on 
the river Jumna, and the entrance on the opposite 
side is through a beautiful garden. Perhaps the 
feature, which attracts chief attention in the interior 
of the Taj, is the mosaic work, or inlaying of carne- 



lian, and other valuable stones, in the shape of flowers 
and vines, of great variety in figure and delicacy 
of coloring. Two richly finished tomb's, in what 
might almost be called the cellar, but which have 
corresponding tombs in the chief apartments, directly 
above the lower ones, contain the only inhabitants 
of this wonderful edifice. Their glory has passed 
away ; even their names are nearly forgotten ; while 
as to their present condition, the multitude of ex- 
tracts from the Koran, on the walls, inlaid, afford 
little ground of hope that they look back on their 
earthly splendor, or on the sepulchral state of their 
clay-tabernacles, wnth any rejoicing. The Taj was 
erected by Shah Jehan, in memory of Nur Nahal ; 
and when he died his remains were entombed by 
her side. 

The fort at Agra, containing a palace and a 
mosque of white marble, is also well worth seeing ; 
as are some other tombs. At Delhi, there are 
several mosques and public buildings of great interest, 
which are larger, but less highly finished, than those 
at Agra. The principal masjid, or Mohammedan 
temple, in this city is built of a kind of freestone. 
These Mohammedan buildings, — the Taj and mosques 
at Agra, and the mosques at Delhi, — are generally 
constructed on the same principles of architecture ; 
which indeed seem to characterize all Mohammedan 
public buildings. You have a noble terrace, with 
perhaps some fine reservoirs of water. Then in the 
centre of the terrace stands the main building, sur- 
mounted invariably by one dome ; sometimes by 



more, with short gilded spires ; while at two of the 
corners of the terrace, and sometimes at all the four, 
lofty minarets or towers arise, either of octagonal or 
circular form, and usually very lofty. At Benares, 
two are upwards of two hundred feet high ; at Agra, 
the four of the Taj are about the same height, and 
perhaps some of the minarets here are nearly as 
lofty. They are generally surmounted by an open 

I went through the palace in this city, in which all 
that remains of the former splendid Moghul royalty 
now resides. Some of the palaces, temples, mosques, 
and tombs are imposing; but there is always a 
strange combination, in these eastern countries, of 
greatness and meanness in the public buildings, as in 
other things. The great hall of audience, for ex- 
ample, with its large court, where suppliant kings 
and ambassadors formerly knelt, is the next in 
series to a stable yard, from which it is separated 
only by a single large gate! The throne, whence 
Aurengzebe gave laws to millions, is ascended by a 
dark narrow flight of rough stone steps ; though there 
v/as another and better entrance to it, which is now 
walled up. The throne itself is now covered with 
defilement, while the hall of audience is lumbered up 
with old palanquins, worn out carriages, &c. The 
present Moghul Emperor has no authority out of the 
palace, and seems to care little about its interior 
appearance, provided he may have plent}- to eat. 
The English treat him with a great show of respect ; 
which is probably the reason that so little care is 



given to keeping things in better order. If the 
palace were entirely theirs, there is little doubt that 
their liberal policy would secure the careful preser- 
vation of these remains of the former greatness of 
the Moghul dominion. 

" The missionary here is Mr. Thompson ; a good, 
intelligent, judicious man, of considerable enterprise, 
and much respected by the English people. He has 
been seventeen years at this city ; speaks the lan- 

-guage, of course, as it is his mother tongue, with 
perfect fluency; and is very diligent. The Lord 
has granted him to see some few converts from the 

' heathen. He was once at Lodiana, and has travelled 
much on missionary tours in the Upper Provinces ; 
I was therefore very glad to hear him say that he 
considered our field of labor the finest in India. 

" I went about fourteen miles, all the way through 
ruins of the old city, to see the Kutab, an immense 
tower of two hundred and forty feet in height. The 
view from the top of it is fitted to awaken strange 
and painful emotions. For miles and miles around, you 
see scarcely anything but the ruins of former great- 
ness. One dilapidated palace, or mosque, or tomb, 
after another, rises in the view, till you are almost 
oppressed at seeing such manifold evidences of the 
feebleness of man. The river Jumna terminates the 
view in one direction ; and, though here but a nar- 
row stream, it is a perpetual witness of the power 
of God in his works, who can preserve as well as 
create. * * * " 


November 5. — " After leaving Kurnal, one hundred 
and twenty miles north of Delhi, I entered the terri- 
tory of the Protected Sikh States. There is nothing, 
however, in the appearance of the towns, or in the 
state of cultivation, to show the traveller that he has 
left the Company's territory. Enjoying the protec- 
tion of British influence, this region seems to enjoy 
the same peace and degree of prosperity that dis- 
tinguish English from Native rule in these parts of 
the earth. But from Cawnpore, and especially from 
Delhi, it is easy to see that the inhabitants are a 
more energetic, warlike people, than those of the 
lower provinces. You meet many native travellers, 
armed with swords, spears, or matchlocks — some- 
times with all these weapons. They are large, 
strongly built men, with full beards, commonly ; and 
often look savage enough ; but are in fact very 
peaceable, if not molested. 

" Northward of Delhi, the soil for the most part is 
very sandy, and under only partial cultivation. 
There are few trees, except in the neighborhood of 
the towns. The inhabitants do not live, as we should 
say, 'in the country;' but nearly all dwell in large 
towns, which are mostly walled. This circumstance, 
in connexion with the common practice of carrying 
arms, indicates that the state of the country has 
formerly been very unsettled ; which indeed was the 
case. But we may hope those days have passed 
away, and that the times of peace which have suc- 
ceeded, will afford opportunity to introduce the 
peaceful reign of our Saviour." 



I reached Lodiana, my post of missionary duty, 
on the 5th of November, 1834. This was nearly 
eighteen months after leaving Philadelphia. And 
it serves to show the manner in which distant 
places have been connected with each other, by the 
providence of Him who beholds all the nations of the 
earth at one view, that a messenger from churches 
in the western hemisphere, after traversing nearly 
seventeen thousand miles of the broad ocean, and 
penetrating thirteen hundred miles further towards 
the heart of Asia, should at last find his sphere of 
labor in a city unknown even by name to those by 
whom he was sent, when his journey was at first 
undertaken. Our neighbors are all our fellow men 
whom we can reach, directly or indirectly, to do them 
good ; and Christian and Heathen nations are now 
so related to each other that the multitudes of those 
'who are "sitting in darkness and the shadow of 
death," though living in distant lands and of a strange 
speech, may be eflfectively reached by the benevo- 
lence of their more favored brethren. We may 
offer to them the blessed gospel if we are so inclined. 



, 129 



Lodiana — Sickness — English Preaching — Importance of Schools — 
English School at Lodiana. 

" Lodiana is the most remote of the English 
stations in India on the North West. It is situated 
on a small nalla, or creek, about five miles from 
the river Sutlej, which forms the eastern boundary 
of the Panjab, and divides the territories under British 
influence from those of Ranjit Singh, the ruler of 
the Sikhs on the other side of the river. The pre- 
sent population of Lodiana is estimated at from 
twenty thousand to twenty-five thousand ; and is on 
the increase. When the navigation of the Indus is 
freed from the present restraints, which will most 
probably be within another year, the town may be 
expected to increase considerably ; as it will then 
become one of the marts of trade with countries 
down the Indus. It is now a place of considerable 
business intercourse with the countries westward. 
Few towns have so varied a population in people and 
language. There are two regiments of infantry, 
and one troop of horse artillery here, commanded, 
of course, by English officers ; so that nearly a hun- 



dred persons use the English language. There are 
probably two thousand five hundred people from 
Cashmere, who have found refuge here from the 
famine and oppression w^hich have almost desolated 
their beautiful native valley. There are about one 
thousand Affghans, who speak Persian chiefly. The 
higher classes, of whatever nation, in this part of 
India pride themselves on speaking Persian. The 
Sikhs, who, both on this side of the Sutlej and on the 
other, form about one tenth of the population, speak 
and write (when they can write at all, which is sel- 
dom the case) the Gurmukhi or Panjabi dialect, 
which appears to be formed from the Hindui. 

" In regard to Lodiana, as a place for missionary 
operations, I still think it quite desirable to have a 
mission established here, of two families for the pre- 
sent ; that is, of two married missionaries. One of 
them, in addition to the Hindui, should possess a 
knowledge of the Panjabi. The other to Hindus- 
tani or Urdu should add Persian. After some time, 
perhaps one, two, or three years at the farthest, a 
press will most probably be nearly indispensable. 
At first, the missionaries will need to labor in a quiet 
way, avoiding professions of intention to convert 
the natives, but watching and improving the oppor- 
tunities which I have no doubt will be constantly 
occurring for conversation, distribution of portions 
of the Scriptures, Tracts, &c. 

" One thing has been much impressed on my mind 
— the importance of sending some person to make 
observation before a mission, of any size at least, is 



resolved on. I find that actual observation has cor- 
rected and modified my views of this field of mis- 
sionary labor in no small degree ; as I shall now 
briefly describe: 1. The way does not seem to be 
yet open for direct efforts, as it is, for instance, in 
the lower provinces. The native chiefs on this side 
the Sutlej, and Ranjit Singh on the other side, have 
still the power to prevent an intercourse with their 
people. It is not probable that they would attempt 
to do it, if quiet, prudent measures were pursued. 
2. The manner in which the population is distributed 
is quite different from what I expected to find, judg- 
ing from other parts of India. The people chiefly 
dwell in large towns, often considerably distant from 
each other ; while the intervening country is unin- 
habited. This circumstance may afford a better 
opportunity ultimately of making all the people 
acquainted with the gospel. 3. The proportion of 
those who embrace the religion of Mohammed is 
much larger than I had supposed, and they constitute 
the better classes of the people. The Sikhs form 
about the tenth or twelfth part of the people. The 
great majority of the rest are Mussulmans. There 
is less prospect of their conversion than of any class ; 
yet ' the arm of the Lord is not shortened, that it 
cannot save,' " 

The same letter, having been delayed some three 
weeks, conveyed the news of sickness, leading after- 
wards to an entire change in my course of life : 

" What a change in a man's prospects and hopes 



is sometimes effected by the events and the informa- 
tion of a few days ! Since my last date, I have been 
ill with a severe attack of congestion of the liver. 
Through the favor of God, the means used have 
been attended with so much success that I am now 
able to sit up again, at least during part of the day- 
For about a week, I could neither read nor attend to 
anything ; I had scarcely strength to rise from my 
bed. This was partly owing to the severe course of 
medicine which it was found necessary to prescribe. 
But I do not love to dwell on what has been severe, 
there has been so much goodness mingled with this 
illness. Though a stranger, I have received the 
kind treatment of friendship. I have especially 
cause for thankfulness in having had the services of 
a skilful and experienced surgeon. My mind too 
has been kept in peace ; and now that I am getting 
better, I am glad to have a grateful heart, and to feel 
inclined to trust in the Lord with renewed confi- 
dence The Doctor tells me, that my 

constitution will not suit this climate, and the sooner 
I return the better." 

On recovering from the severe illness referred to 
in this letter, I took charge of a school for the edu- 
cation of native boys in English, and also of a school 
for the children of the Drummers, Serjeants, and 
Native soldiers, besides conducting public worship on 
the Lord's Day, attended by the English officers and 
others speaking our language. 

This latter service was very well attended, and 



was an important, and in the circumstances then 
existing, an appropriate sphere of duty. Where the 
Europeans at a station are disposed to attend on the 
ordinances and ministrations of religion, it is decidedly 
important to have these services established. Not 
to insist that their spiritual interests should never be 
neglected any more than those of other men, their 
official standing and their superior character give 
them every advantage for promoting the welfare of 
the natives, both by their own efforts directly, as 
representing our common religion, and by the coun- 
tenance and co-operation which they can give to 
the missionary. There may be in some cases an 
impropriety in a missionary's undertaking such duties, 
especially where chaplains are already officiating ; 
and in no case should missionaries turn aside from 
their proper vocation, in the hope of greater use- 
fulness amongst the comparatively few Europeans at 
their station. Their work is a special one, and it is 
clearly defined by the commission under which they 
act : it must not be thrown into the shade by any 
other undertaking. As they have opportunity, how- 
ever, they must do good unto all men ; and the main 
difficulty will often be, to know how to give a due 
share of their time and labor to the numerous claims 
which are made on them. The greatest usefulness 
in the long run to the greatest number must be their 
aim. In my own instance, there could be no difficulty 
about giving a part of my time to this EngHsh 
service, as I had been constrained to relinquish the 



study of the native language, by the slight prospect 
of being able to continue long in the country. 

The English school had been set on foot by Cap- 
tain now Colonel Sir C. M. Wade, the Political 
Agent, a few months before I reached Lodiana, and 
had been placed under one of his native clerks, with 
the design of transferring it to my care when I should 
arrive. Some fourteen or sixteen native boys had 
been in attendance. After a few^ weeks the number 
was increased to about fifty, of whom some were the 
sons of two or three native chiefs, and other respec- 
table native gentlemen ; some of them were Hindus, 
others Affghans, others Cashmerians, and a few 
Sikhs; speaking, amongst them, the Hindui, Hin- 
dustani, Gurmukhi, Pushto, Persian, and Cashmerian 
languages. By giving two or three hours a day to 
the superintendence of the school, and with the valu- 
able service of an Indo-British teacher, the progress 
of the scholars was very creditable to themselves, 
and gratifying to their generous patron, Captain 
Wade, and other European visitors. 

Several of these youths evinced no ordinary 
degree of capacity, and most of them were of clever 
abilities. All were uniformly respectful in their 
behavior, and after a little training became studious 
and some of them earnest in their attention to their 
boohs. It was delightful to look on their animated 
faces, and see their eyes kindle as they received 
knowledge daily to which before they had been 
strangers. And when their confidence had been 



gained, they appeared to regard me with mingled 
respect and afTection, and to receive my instructions 
with apparently perfect faith. I advert to thisj 
though at the risk of appearing to speak ffiy own 
praise, for a special reason— to show how invaluable 
are the opportunities afforded to a missionary by 
such a school for promoting the great object of his 
mission. He has a most hopeful charge, a company 
of youths whose minds are as yet but partially under 
the influence of heathen opinions and associations. 
The influence of their families, out of school, is 
doubtless strongly unfavorable, but this weighty 
hinderance is perhaps more decidedly felt by adults 
than by children in India. And opportunities will 
occur every day of correcting the false views which 
prevail around them, and imparting clear and con- 
nected instruction concerning the Christian religion, 
while all the teaching of the missionary is enforced 
by his example, and rendered almost sacred in the 
eyes of the scholars by their high views of his cha 

The importance of Christian schools becomes still 
more apparent when we recollect that the main hope 
of success in our endeavors to convert any heathen 
people, so far as the use of means is concerned, con- 
sists in preparing native agents who shall preach 
the gospel to their countrymen. These must be 
chosen and qualified, in heathen as in Christian 
countries, chiefly amongst the youth. Missionaries 
from foreign countries are indispensable in the first 
instance. It is theirs to sow the seed, to plant Chris - 




tian institutions, to organize and train the army of 
native soldiers of the cross, and for a while to be the 
officers of " the sacramental host." All this they 
are now doing in India. But they labor under great 
disadvantages. Their numbers are too small ; they 
are and ever must be regarded as foreigners, imper- 
fectly acquainted with the language, the usages, and 
the habits of mental association of the people ; they 
cannot live but at great expense, compared with the 
cost of supporting a native missionary ; they are 
poorly fitted by their previous habits and by their 
having been brought up in colder countries, for re- 
sisting the insidious and too often fatal influence of 
the Indian climate : these and similar considerations 
will ever preclude the hope of the conversion of the 
Hindus by a purely foreign agency, and they show 
the necessity of directing our endeavors to the 
training of a native ministry, on whom must finally 
devolve the great work of evangelizing India. The 
limited experience of European missionaries in India 
would, it seems to me, fully support these views. 
Those missions and missionaries have been most 
successful, which employed the largest and best 
trained force of native assistants. And it is very 
satisfactory to know that within the last few years, 
these doctrines have been more fully recognised by 
missionary societies than formerly. We may indulge 
brighter hopes, therefore, of future success. Indeed 
it has always appeared to me surprising that objec- 
tions should be made against missionaries having 
the charge of schools among the heathen — espe- 



cially in India, where nearly all the native writings, 
no matter how erroneous, have a sacred charac- 
ter, and where all the instructions of the missionary, 
even concerning geography or astronomy, have a 
direct influence in overthrowing the great fabric of 
Hindu superstition. In every heathen country, the 
missionary's schools are his churches, the scholars his 
congregation, and every day is hallowed by him in 
communicating Christian knowledge. It cannot be 
contended that preaching the gospel, which is doubt- 
less the one great object of the missionary's life, is to 
be restricted to the forms of stated pubhc worship 
which have been matured in old Christian communi- 
ties — to preaching elaborate sermons, for example, 
delivered from a pulpit to the people sitting below in 
pews. There could have been very little preaching of 
this kind in the Apostolic age, or in times of persecu- 
tion afterwards. Divine truth may undoubtedly be 
preached without the presence of the forms which 
we so justly revere. It may be made known by a 
public and authorized person in many other ways. 
It may be taught by the gift of the Sacred Volume 
with a few words of kind advice ; it may be pro- 
claimed with a loud voice in the midst of the con- 
fused multitude, pressing madly after their idols ; it 
may be preached to a few natives under the shade 
of a banyan tree, by the missionary's earnest talking 
with them ; it may be announced in quietness and 
peace in the humble mission chapel, to a little com- 
pany of patient hearers ; and we should be thankful 
for all these ways of preaching good news to our 

fellow men. Why should We feel less thankful tfiat 
the gospel may be taught daily to children, teachably 
and hopefully waiting on the lips of \tell kno'Avn and 
beloved instructors ? If there have been schools in 
which a decided Christian influence has not been 
e'xerted, I am not their advocstte ; but when properly 
conducted, schools certainly afford most important 
facilities for advancing the object which the Church 
has in view in her missions to the heathen. At the 
same time, I am well aware that serious difficulties 
may often exist to hinder the usefulness of schools, and 
even to prevent their being taken under the mis-- 
sionary's care. 

If I have dwelt too long on this to-pic, it has beer^ 
only in part on account of its deep importance ta 
the successful prosecution of the missiotiafy work 
I have also wished ta secure the reader's greater 
interest iii the school, with which our efforts among- 
the natives at Lodiana were commeneed. Its early 
history has given pleasing evidence of the favor of 
God towards our mission. 

At first, however, there seemed to he no little 
tincertainly alxriit its prospects, and whether indeed 
Jt should become a mission school This ma^ 
appear surprising to the reader who recollects the 
account given ^)y Mr. Reed and myself in our letter' 
to the 8ot:iety, from which an extract has beer^ 
given on a previous page ; but that letter conveyed 
only the impressions made by the information w& 
had then received. Now, I found that among the 

fiVENfs Af totiAsA. 


Europeans in the Upper Provinces there was much 
apprehension about connecting reh'gious instruction 
with the education of the natives ; and some men^ 
of hberal views too, were decidedly opposed to such 
a union, at least at this time. The general policy 
of the government colleges, in which the Christian 
religion is no more recognised than the Mohamme^ 
dan or any other, should be followed with special 
care, it was argued^ amongst a people so partially 
under subjection to the British as the inhabitants of 
the Protected Sikh States, and a people moreover of 
so much independence, not to say recklessness of 
character. The popularity of these colleges among 
the natives was everywhefe acknowledged, but the 
successful religious institutions of learninginCalcuttay 
attended largely by native youths of the highest castes, 
were not so well known in the Upper Provinces, or 
not considered examples to be imitated where the cir= 
cumstances were so difiTerent. And it r^^as easy^ 
starting from premises like these, to form quite an 
array of objections, which I doubt not were sincerely 
felt, against attempting to combine religion and 
education in schools for the natives. Religious pre- 
judices would be aroused, disaffection might be 
created against the government, and the improve- 
ment of the natives retarded by premature zeal 
these were opinions which it is not strange that men^ 
should form in the peculiar circumstances of these 
provinces. I esteemed myself highly fortunate in 
having to consult with a gentleman of such enlarged 
and correct views^ and of such general zeal for the 



good of the natives, as were evinced by the Political 
Agent at Lodiana. With many other naen it might 
have been impracticable for me to have had any 
connexion with the English school at that place, as 
I could not consent to take the responsible charge of 
an institution from which our holy religion was to 
be utterly excluded. After mature reflection, the 
school was fully placed under my control, and its 
studies were directed by a settled plan. No profes- 
sions of our object were ostentatiously made, but on 
the other hand no concealment of our views was 
attempted, nor was there any withholding of religious 
instruction. No alarm was awakened among either 
Hindus, Mussulmans, or Sikhs ; and the school, 
after a fair trial, was considered a successful effort. 
At least, a favorable beginning had been made, though 
another and hardly less critical decision as to its 
permanent character was yet to be given. 

Thus far there was abundant ground for acknow- 
ledging the hand of God for good towards our mission, 
and, we trust, towards the native inhabitants. It 
would have been a matter of deep regret, if the first 
efforts in this new sphere of education had been 
established on the contracted policy of excluding 
that instruction, without which all other teaching is 
incomplete and unsatisfactory ; thereby awakening 
or confirming a host of prejudices, and closing the 
door against the most valuable opportunities of im- 
parting religious knowledge to those, who were soon 
to wield the highest native influence. Indeed so 
grave was the complexion of this matter, that I could 



not but seriously doubt the expediency of remaining 
at Lodiana, unless it could be satisfactorily adjusted. 
This was evidently the first thing to be done, as 
matters then stood in that city ; and not to have had 
the supervision of whatever was done or attempted 
might have proved in many ways embarrassing. 
But whatever fears I might have been constrained 
to indulge, not so much from the views of Europeans 
at this city as from the general considerations already 
referred to, I could not but acknowledge with lively 
gratitude the favor of Him, who disposes and governs 
all the counsels of men according to his own holy 
will. Nor could I fail to be grateful to those Euro- 
peans of the station, and particularly to the Political 
Agent, Captain Wade, who in this instance as in all 
others proved himself a cordial and efficient friend 
of our mission. 


TotJft TO LAtfOfi. 


Tour to LAHoRi 

tnfdrrrlation desired — Invitation from Ranjit Singh — 'Manner of tra-- 
veiling — Appearance of the country — Paghwarah — Dancing girls—* 
Villages — Cities — Interview With a Native- Chief — River Bias^ 
Cashnierian emigrants — Sacred reservoir at Amritsir 5 visit of a 
Native Chief. 

Those who are engaged in establishing a new 
tnission, should seek earnestly for such information 
as shall enable them wisely to form their plans of 
proceeding. They should know the numbers of the 
people amongst whom they are to labor ; their cha^ 
racter, business, usages, learning, government, laws^ 
state of society, chief towns and cities^ and other 
matters affecting their condition, and especially theii* 
religidn and its institutions and observances. These 
things influence greatly the efforts, both in kind and 
extent, which the missionary should undertake for 
their welfare. Entertainirig this opinion, I endea- 
vored to collect information on these points from 
every quarter ; particularly after the physician, to 
whose kind and valuable services I Was so deeply 
indebted, had given his opinion as to the necessity 
of my returning home. As our mission had a spe- 



cial reference to the Sikh people who inhabit these 
north-western parts of India, and as most of the 
Sikh tribes Kve in the Panjab, or country between 
the Sutlej and the Indus, under the government of 
Maha Rajah Ranjit Singh, and are seldom visited by 
foreigners, I was anxious to make a tour on the 
other side of the Sutlej. I soon learned that there 
was little prospect of being able to make such a 
journey. Throus^h jealousy of foreign influence, 
Ranjit was reluctant to permit Europeans and other 
foreigners to enter his territories; and to avoid 
giving umbrage to a ruler of so much power, the 
British authorities did not authorize foreigners to 
cross the Sutlej, except in special instances. I had 
therefore reluctantly to relinquish the project of 
making inquiries in the Panjab itself. The reader 
will judge then of my surprise and gratification at 
receiving from the Maha Raja an invitation to pay 
him a visit at Labor ! He had heard of me and of 
our English school through his Vakil at Lodiana; 
and with his invitation he made a proposal that I 
should spend six months of the year at his capita], 
to take charge of the education of a number of the 
young Sikh noblemen, the sons of chiefs. I should 
have been delighted to have accepted this proposal, 
if the state of my health w^ould at all have justified 
my living on the plains ; it presented a fine prospect 
of obtaining a standing and influence, which would 
have been invaluable to a missionary. And in re- 
flecting on the past, I have been disposed to regret 
that I had not consented at whatever risk ; but the 



physician's advice was imperative. I must repair to 
the hills on the approach of the hot season, as the 
only means of preventing another attack, which in 
the warm season would probably prove extremely 
dangerous, if not fatal. I was constrained therefore 
to decline the proposal, and as the invitation was 
connected with it, I much feared that my declining 
the one would prevent a renewal of the other, 
though in acknowledging the honor of the invitation, 
I expressed myself as anxious to be permitted to 
come and pay my duty to " the great King." 

The invitation was repeated, and the visit to 
Labor was shortly afterwards made. Of this tour I 
took notes at the time, which will serve to give a 
better view of the condition of the Panjab, than I 
could present in any other form. 

January 28, 1835. — Agreeably to an arrangement 
previously made, I set out this afternoon on the 
journey to Labor. An elephant had been sent from 
that city, to carry the tents ; and another which the 
Maha Rajah keeps at Lodiana, was assigned for my 
use to ride. The latter is a noble animal, being nine 
or ten feet in height. On his back is placed the 
Howdah, a kind of buggy-like frame, but without a 
hood, and having two seats. The front one is 
richly ornamented, with silk cushions, of a yellow 
color, the favorite color of the Sikhs ; and affords 
sufficient room for two persons. Behind it is a 
lower seat for a servant, either for parade or to hold 
an umbrella when necessary. The driver sits on 



the neck immediately before the howdah, while one 
or two assistants run by the side of the elephant, 
carrying goads, or iron sticks, to guide the animal 
or quicken his pace. The motion is not a pleasant 
one to persons not used to it. He goes at a kind of 
walking gait, as if trampling on round stones, and 
apparently so much at his leisure as to lead one to 
think he was making little progress. In truth, how- 
ever, the horsemen in company, of whom there are 
ten assigned as guards, are obliged to amble along 
(for the Hindus seldom trot) four or five miles an 
hour, to keep up with him. 

Before mentioning the elephants and the horse- 
men, I should have introduced the Persian Munshi, 
or Secretary, who goes with me as interpreter. 
He is a Mussulman Hindu, who has acquired a 
pretty good knowledge of our language at the Eng- 
lish College at Delhi. He will be of great use to 
me ; as, in addition to the knowledge of the lan- 
guage, he is acquainted with the customs of the 
people, and his pleasing manners render him not un- 
acceptable as a companion. 

There are no hotels in this country ; so that in 
travelling it is necessary to take everything along 
that is needed for cooking, sleeping, &c. And such 
is the division of labor among different castes, who 
will not do anything but what pertains to their own 
class, that it requires no small number of men to 
form an establishment. Thus, our present company 
amounts to about sixty persons, including myself, 



munshi, horseguard, and our respective domestic 
servants, with tent-pitchers, attendants for the ele- 
phants, horses, &c. Large as this number appears 
to be, I have the satisfaction of knowing that it is 
smaller than the attendance of most European tra- 
vellers in the Panjab. 

Crossing the Nallah, or moderate sized stream, of 
clear beautiful water, which flows almost half round 
Lodiana, our road led through fields of grain, cover- 
ing the level sandy plains with a carpet of green. ' 
We passed two or three small, ill-looking villages, 
where the mud-houses of the people, their cattle, and 
their grain, were all jumbled closely together, and 
surrounded by a low clay wall. At five or six miles' 
distance, we came to the river Sutlej. The water 
flows along in a naked channel through the sandy 
plains, which characterize this part of India. There 
are a great many shoals, or sand-banks, in the chan- 
nel, which make their appearance at this time of 
year ; yet in the main channel there is rather a 
strong current, and about ten feet depth of water. 
During the rainy season, the waters of this river are 
spread over the country two or three miles in 
breadth. Formerly, it ran past Lodiana, where the 
Nallah now runs ; but it forsook that channel some 
fifty years ago — an occurrence which one may sup- 
pose would not be unfrequent, as the water receives 
a rapid impulse in the mountainous regions, and the 
sandy soil of the plains opposes but feeble resistance 
to its progress. The ancient name of this river was 



Satudar, whence Hesudrus. It is the most eastern 
of the five rivers from which the name Panjab* is 
derived, and forms the boundary on the east of that 
part of India. After continuing its course forty miles 
from this place, it receives the Bias, the ancient Hy- 
piiasis, the second river of the Panjab, counting from 
the east ; and thence, the united stream is called the 
Gharra. At Uch, lower down to the southwest, the 
river formed by the other three rivers of the Panjab 
joins the Gharra ; and thenceforward, the name is 
Panjnad, which falls into the Indus at Mithon Khot. 
We crossed the Sutlej at a town called Filor, on 
the opposite bank, where there is a fort of some 
strength, garrisoned by one hundred and fifty men, 
and a population of six or seven thousand persons, 
chiefly Mussulmans. Here we encamped for the 
night on the open plain near the town. 

January 29. — We started this morning at 7^ 
o'clock, and came to Paghwarah, ten kos, or about 
thirteen miles. The road led us past six or seven 
villages : some of them large, containing probably 
two or three thousand inhabitants each. Many others 
were in sight, and several had small forts, of no great 
strength. Paghwarah contains probably fifteen thou- 
sand inhabitants. The houses and public buildings 
make a better appearance than is usual in cities of 
India, a larger portion of them being of brick than 
is common. The people are chiefly Hindus ; the 
Mussulmans have two mosques ; and there are two 

* From two India words, panj five ; and dh water. 



or three hundred Sikhs. So we are informed by the 
chief man of the town, himself a Sikh. There are 
a few Persian and Sanscrit schools at this town, 
attended by a few scholars each. The chief trade 
of the people is in the common white sugar of the 
country. The fort presents a formidable appearance 
at a distance. We did not go near enough to examine 
it closely. 

In the afternoon, a company of Nach girls came 
to the place where our tents -were pitched on the 
plain, wishing to exhibit their skill in dancing, in order 
to obtain a present. There were about twenty of 
them, attended by two or three men with instruments 
of music. All were unveiled, and were dressed in 
their richest finery. Nearly all were quite young, 
probably not more than ten or eleven years of age. 
As I did not wish to give them any encouragement, 
they went away apparently much disappointed. 

This class of girls is to be found in all the large 
towns and cities of India. Their profession, from 
which they receive their name, is that of dancing 
and singing ; in which they are employed at all 
feasts and joyous occasions. The Hindus consider 
such amusements very disgraceful in themselves ; 
though they take great delight in witnessing the per- 
formance of others. These poor girls are universally 
of disreputable character; and their number and 
style of dress afford one of many proofs, that impur- 
ity extensively prevails among this people. It is 
said that their songs and dancing are often very 
indecent. This general subject is a painful one to 



every Christian mind, and requires the veil of silence 
to be drawn over most of its aspects. Yet it would 
be a want of faithfulness in missionaries not to advert 
to it at all ; as thereby one of the most prominent 
evils of Heathenism would fail to be rightly under- 
stood. If any of the views, however, which may be 
presented, admit minuteness of statement and call 
for peculiar concern, it is the affecting truth that the 
great majority of this class are so very young. It 
not only shows that they are early initiated into the 
grossest vice, but that their course in it is brief. 
Soon they are discarded, wander about as beggars, 
and perish miserably. 

January 30. — Jalandar, about thirteen miles. We 
started at six o'clock. The morning was cold 
and frosty, the thermometer standing at 32° in the 
open air. We passed two large villages, and saw 
several others at a short distance ; from one part of 
the road, no less than six, all of them but four or five 
miles apart, and connected together by the greenly 
covered field of grain. At one of them there is a 
large mosque. 

The appearance of villages in the northern parts 
of India is almost everywhere the same. If rising 
ground can be obtained, they are placed on the 
highest part ; which however, is seldom more than 
a few feet elevated above the vast surrounding 
plains. The houses are almost always built of clay 
or mud, as is the wall which commonly incloses the 
town. There is greater neatness and cleanliness in 
the interior of these villages than a person would 



expect to see ; but on the outside of the walls there 
is much to offend more senses than one. I have 
often been reminded of the expression in Revela- 
tion, " without are dogs.'' These animals are by no 
means held in such estimation in this country as 
among western nations. Many of them run wild, 
or unclaimed by any owner ; and often they may be 
seen, half-starved, sneaking, and stupid in their 
appearance, preying on the filthy, putrid matters that 
are thrown over the walls. 

The cultivated plains over which we are travelHng 
are said to yield two crops in the year ; the first, of 
wheat and barley, sown in November, and reaped in 
April ; the second, of different kinds of a native 
grain, generally called dal, sown or planted in July, 
and gathered in October. The seed of the dal is 
used by the natives for food, and the stalks make 
fodder for the cattle. The wheat and barley seem 
to be cultivated with great care. Often it is planted 
in rows a few inches apart ; and frequently the seed 
has been so deposited as to spring up in bunches or 
clusters of two or three stalks each. 

Before reaching our stage to-day, we met a string 
of sixty or seventy camels, loaded with salt. They 
travel in " Indian file," a cord being attached either 
from the crupper or tail of the first, to the nose of 
the second, and so on. The salt is brought from 
Dadal Khan ka Pind, a place on the other side of 
the Jilum, upwards of one hundred miles from Labor 
to the northwest. There is a range of salt hills, in 
which, at some distance and partly descending, the 



salt is found in solid naass of a reddish color. It 
is dug with sledges and hammers, and exported to 
all parts of the Panjab ; yielding a revenue at the 
mines, it is said, of more than a million and a half 
of rupees. 

Jalander, in the vicinity of which our tents are 
pitched to-day, is a large, substantial looking city. 
It was formerly the residence of the Lodi race of 
Affghan kings, from whom the town of Lodiana 
takes its name, who have left many traces of their 
having made this place their home. It is surrounded 
by a high wall, partly of brick with bastions, and 
partly of clay, — has a large fort, and many brick 
houses. The population is said to be forty thousand ; 
chiefly Hindus, with some Mussulmans and a few 
Sikhs. The country is highly cultivated, and in the 
immediate vicinity are numerous gardens, mango, 
pomegranate, orange, and rose trees. Our tents are 
near three large tombs, erected to perpetuate the 
names of former kings. But their remembrance has 
passed away, and their memorials are fast sharing 
the same lot, being in a very ruinous condition. I 
estimated the smallest one to be forty feet square, 
and twenty-five to the commencement of the dome. 
The other two are larger, and of different structure ; 
but are also surmounted by domes. This circum- 
stance is proof itself of the Mussulman faith of their 
builders. They seem to be very fond of this kind 
of structure, probably because it forms so large a 
part of the ornamental roofs of their sacred temple 
fit Mekka. They place domes, in this country, on 




the tops of nearly all their mosques ; usually three ; 
and on their tombs and other public buildings. 

In the afternoon, the Thanadar, or Governor of 
the city, came to pay his respects to me. He was 
attended by several of the chief men, and a crowd of 
guards with long spears, making a little forest of 
sharp points over their heads. I was indebted for 
this mark of respect to my character as an English- 
man, for such they think I am, and to my travelling 
through the country at the Maha Rajah's invitation. 
The custom is for inferiors of respectability, in 
approaching a person whom they regard as superior, 
to offer a rupee or two on the folded corner of their 
mantle. This was done this afternoon ; but I think 
it best, after recognising their civility, to decline 
receiving the present. It is only meant as a matter 
of form. After making some inquiries, I distributed 
tracts to those among theai who could read ; which 
were accepted with many thanks ; chiefly, I suppose, 
because they look on me as their superior, so that it 
is a mark of favor from me. I am thankful, that 
this adventitious dignity will probably secure a 
careful perusal of these silent messengers of salva- 

January 31. — To Kaphurtalah, twelve miles. 
Soon after starting this morning, we passed two of 
the XwqXyq pakkd villages which belong to the city of 
Jalander. Their houses and walls are all built of 
burnt bricks, whence the name pakka, which gives 
them a very superior appearance to that of many 
Hindu villages. None of them are more than five 



miles from the city. The district of Jalandar, includ- 
ing the city, is farmed for its revenue by a Sikh 
chief, who pays two hundred thousand rupees annu- 
ally for the privilege to Ranjit Singh. When we 
got within a mile of our halting place, we were met 
by a vakil, or kind of ambassador, of the Chief of 
this part of the country, mounted on an elephant, and 
accompanied by eight or ten foot soldiers with their 
muskets, who presented arms as a salute, and then 
went before us, the vakil riding by our side. For 
this mark of respect we may thank, partly the cir- 
cumstances under w^hich I make the journey, and 
partly the custom of the country. We were con- 
ducted to a large, and for this country a well-built, 
dwelling in a garden, some distance outside of the 
walls of the city, where the Chief wished me to take 
up my quarters. 

Fatteh Singh, the Sardar, or Chief of Kaphurtalah, 
is one of the most powerful of the Sikh chiefs, hav- 
ing a revenue of about seven lakhs of rupees, or three 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars. He was formerly 
an independent prince, but was obliged to become a 
feudatory of Ranjit Singh, after being deprived of a 
considerable portion of his territories. Part of his 
possessions lie in the district of country between the 
Sutlej and the Jumna, under British protection. 
The population of this town, where he lives most of 
the time, is probably about ten thousand persons ; 
chiefly Hindus, with some Mussulmans, and a few 
Sikhs. It is a new town, and is apparently increas- 
ing with much rapidity. Some of the public build- 



ings are large and not deficient in Hindu taste. The 
most singular and extensive is a temple to Siva, 
erected for the Hindus by the Chief, himself a Sikh. 
It has a lofty pagoda-like structure at each corner of 
a square, and a similar building in the centre of 
larger dimensions. These pagodas are from thirty 
to fifty feet high, vi^ith many gilded short spires 
shooting up from various projections. In the after- 
noon, the wind was very high and from the east. 
The thermometer stood in the open air at 40°, 101°, 
and 50°, at sunrise, noon, and sunset. At noon it 
stood at 61° in the shade. 

February 2. — Yesterday I went to see the Chief, 
and had much conversation with him and his attend- 
ants. He is rather under the middle size, has an 
intelligent countenance, dresses plainly — much more 
so than his sons, and all his remarks evinced strong 
good sense, though not much cultivation of mind. 
I was struck with the frank, unceremonious, yet 
respectful manner in which all seemed to address 
him. It wore something of a patriarchal aspect, 
which the grave countenances and long beards of 
the people rendered the more dignified. It was 
interesting, also, to see Sikhs, Mussulmans, and 
Hindus, mingled among the chief men of this court, 
in the same manner as the mosques and temples of 
these sects are seen standing in the same streets of 
the town. I should think it very probable, that in a 
few years a branch of our mission might be esta- 
blished here under promising prospects. Even now, 
I think the Sardar could be persuaded to grant his 



protection, if not his influence ; and especially if an 
English school were undertaken. 

Our halting place to-day is at Bahrovval, fourteen 
or fifteen miles from Kaphurtalah, on the opposite 
bank of the Bias, the second river of the Panjab from 
the east. The Bias is here a pretty stream of about 
one hundred yards in breadth. The eastern bank 
is low, and covered with a deep fine white sand, for 
a mile from the water. The other bank is bolder, 
and is probably thirty feet high. The town of Bah- 
rowal stretches along the western bank for two or 
three miles ; but does not contain more than five or 
six thousand inhabitants, who are chiefly Hindus. 
It is a kind of landing-place for rafts of timber, which 
are brought down the river in the rain}^ season. 
But it does not present the appearance of a thriving 
business place ; rather it appears to be on the decline. 
As usual, there are no schools, and but few persons 
who can read. 

February 3. — To Jandyala, fourteen miles. The 
country, to-day, has the same general appearance 
that we have noticed on former days — level, sandy, 
destitute of trees, stones, houses, or anything to 
break the uniformity of the landscape. There were 
occasional fields of fine wheat, and a few villages 
looking as uninteresting as usual. The fields have 
now commonly a low brier fence around them. One 
is ready to wonder at the richness of the grain on so 
sandy a soil ; but the soil is rather a loam, much 
sand being intermingled with clay, which becomes 
very productive when water can be applied to 



irrigate it. To obtain water for this purpose, the 
Persian wheel is commonly employed. 

To-day, as on former days, we met a number of 
Cashmerians, emigrating from their beautiful native 
valley, in search of employment. Through famine 
and oppression, the valley of Cashmere is said to be 
now almost deserted ; containing probably less than 
one hundred thousand inhabitants, and yielding no 
revenue at all, where, some years ago, it is said, 
forty lakhs, or four millions of rupees, were collected. 
These emigrants look very wretched, being ragged, 
dirty, and often bare-headed, which in this country 
indicates much deeper poverty than to be bare- 
footed in western countries. They carry with them 
a few utensils for cooking, and sometimes a small 
bundle of ragged clothes. The men have usually 
fine, intellectual looking countenances, and are 
rather small in stature. The women may rank in 
their appearance among the poorer classes of emi- 
grants from Europe to America, and have frequently 
good faces and fine eyes, though not so remarkable 
for beauty as some writers represent. They are a 
very industrious people, and are now to be found at 
nearly all the large towns in this res^ion of India, 
employed in manufacturing the various fine fabrics 
for which their valley is celebrated. 

Jandyala presents rather a good appearance, many 
of the houses being built of brick. It is always diffi- 
cult to form a correct estimate of the population of 
a Hindu town. There are seldom any well ascer- 
tained statistics, never any records, and the natives 



differ widely in their guesses. One informant stated 
the inhabitants of this town at thirty thousand. It 
probably contains about one third that number ; 
chiefly Hindus of the Kshatriya caste, one of the 
most respectable orders of the community. There 
are, however, no schools" of any kind, and few are 
able to read. Those who wish to have their chil- 
dren taught to read and write, send them to Amritsir. 
There is a brick fort in the immediate vicinity of 
this town, the walls of which are probably twenty or 
twenty-five feet high. It is smaller than one or two 
others we have seen, that were built in the same 
style. Scarcely any of them would hold out for any 
length of time against European artillery. Some of 
them would tumble down at the first discharge. Yet 
others display considerable acquaintance with mili- 
tary science, having the same array of bastions, 
ramparts, port-holes, ditches, drawbridges, &:c., that 
are common in European fortifications. 

February 4. — Our ride this morning presented 
nothing worthy of particular notice. The fields of 
grain were more scattered than we observed on for- 
mer days, and large tracts of land were lying waste. 
Two or three large villages on the road-side, and 
some others at a distance, had the usual appearance. 
When we had made about half our march, we saw 
several lofty columns rising from the city of Amritsir, 
distant five or six miles. We soon reached the city, 
and found our tents pitched in a garden outside of 
the wall, at the north end. This is one of the largest 
cities in the north of India, as the population is sup- 



posed to be upwards of one hundred thousand. It 
has the higher recommendation of being a city not 
on the decHne, but of increasing prosperity. It is 
the emporium of the Panjab, and the chief mart of 
the fine fabrics of Cashmere, and yields a revenue, it 
is said, of five hundred thousand rupees, which is 
paid to the Maha Rajah by the Chief, who has the 
farming of its collection ; so that the entire sum is 
probably much greater. 

Like Benares among the Hindus, Amritsir is the 
Sikh Athens and Jerusalem, being the chief city of 
learning and religion. The cause of its celebrity is 
undoubtedly the Sacred Reservoir, said to have been 
formed by Guru Ram Das about the year 1575. It 
has been once or twice profaned by Mohammedan 
conquerors, yet has still been regarded with the 
utmost veneration. It is the chief place of resort of 
the Sikh pilgrims, and has many daily devotees, who 
think their worship becomes highly meritorious by 
being performed at so sacred a place. Rajahs have 
vied with each other in the richness of their offerings 
for its decoration ; and the number of learned Sikhs, 
who live in the cloisters around its pavement, and 
in the booths on the margin of its waters, to explain 
the sacred book, the Granth, is so large, as to diffuse 
almost a literary atmosphere over the place of devotion. 

I went to see the reservoir, though some dan- 
ger attended the visit. There are always present 
many of the Akalis, a kind of desperate fanatics, 
who fear not God nor man. I found a large square 
court, paved with bricks along the four sides, which 



form what may be termed the wharves of the sacred 
water. Along the outside of the pavement there is 
a rans^e of buildings with open doors or windows, 
facing the reservoir ; and the numerous shady treesj 
which are growing in the pavement, make the Walk 
agreeable, and are in good keeping with the serious 
character of the place. The pool of water is about 
one hundred yards square, and is probably ten or 
twelve feet deep. It is supplied by a small canal, 
brought from the river Ravi, at about thirty-five 
miles' distance. In the midst of the water stands a 
small, but neat temple, covered over with neat gild- 
ing, and connected with the pavement by a cause- 
way at one side. At the north side there is a large 
and richly decorated temple to Guru Govind Singhj 
near which is planted a lofty flag-staff, covered with 
gold cloth. Both of these are objects of great vene- 
ration. At the edges of the pavement next the 
water are sundry small booths, or little buildings, 
open at one side, and containing little else than a 
Granth and a Guru, a Sikh Bible and a Sikh priest. 

A number of boys accompanied us in our walk 
around, and behaved very insolently ; as did some 
beggars ; so that I was not sorry to see an additional 
guard of policemen, and soon after a company of sol- 
diers, who were sent by the chief of the police, and by 
the Governor of the city, to prevent any person from 
offering me insult or violence. It is usual for visitors 
to make an offering of money to the Granth that is 
kept in the Gilt Temple. I declined compliance, 
as it would have been wrong to do so, but softened 




the matter as much as I could by ordering a few 
rupees to be given to the numerous beggars. This 
measure was far from being satisfactory to the 

No religious place that I have seen in India, not 
excepting the religious places of Benares, seems to 
me as well adapted to impress the minds of the 
deluded worshippers with devotional feelings. Nor 
do I recollect any so pleasing in its whole appear- 
ance, nor in which there is so little to offend good 
taste. It is a place where a Christian would love to 
see temples to the living and the true God ; and 
where he would be delighted to observe the counte- 
nances of the crowds of worshippers reflecting love 
and Christian peace, instead of Pharisaical and 
desperado hauteur. 

In the evening the Sardar or Chief of this district, 
Lehna Singh, paid a visit, ostensibly to the garden 
grounds where the tents were pitched, but really to 
see the "Padri Sahib." He is a very sensible and 
thinking man. In the course of the conversation, he 
adverted to the almost atheistical principles or rather 
want of principles, which most Europeans of his 
acquaintance manifested. Seeing a thermometer 
and a compass lying on the table, he soon showed 
that he perfectly understood the uses of each, and 
wished to know why the magnet always pointed to 
the North. He referred to the healing effects of 
some kind of metals when applied to different parts 
of the body, as an instance of European science ; 
and asked for the reason. I saw that he had lieard 



something about the "metallic tractors" which were 
so famous in France towards the close of the last 
century, and explained to him their history. He 
then inquired about the extent of my studies ; and 
finding 1 had paid some attention to Geometry, men- 
tioned that he had an instrument w^hich he did not 
know how to use, and asked me to explain the mode. 
Making a sketch of it with a pencil, it proved to be 
a quadrant, which he afterwards sent to me by one 
of his most intelligent men. The Sardar wished to 
know thfe mode of taking the longitude and latitude 
of a place, and what instruments were necessary, 
and wherein they differed from each other. He ad- 
verted to spires of buildings becoming magnetic after 
some years' exposure; and also remarked, that iron 
which had been some years exposed to fire often be- 
comes magnetized. He^mentioned seeing the stars 
in daylight, when in the valleys between mountains* 
as a parallel example to a remark I had incidentally 
made about seeing them from the bottom of wells ; 
and, in the interview, asked many questions about 
these and other subjects, evincing both thought and 
observation, as well as a judicious mind ; while 
there was but little shading of vanity in his manner, 
or disposition either to value himself on account of 
attainments so unusual among his countrymen, or to 
make a display of them to others. 

I was highly gratified with the scientific part of 
the interview ; but regretted that religion did not 
form a more prominent part of the conversation. 
On proposing to present him with a Gurmukhi Tcs- 



tament, I found that he already possessed one ; and 
the attempt I made to introduce religious topics 
through that door was prevented by the questions 
already referred to. However, the latter may pre- 
pare the way for the former. Lehna Singh is a 
middle-aged man, of mild but dignified manners ; 
and greatly beloved, I understand, by his subjects. 
He aids the Maha Rajah, when necessary, with a 
quota of troops. His own revenues are said to be 
about three hundred thousand rupees per year. 

February 5. — To Jangri ka Phul, fourteen kos, or 
twenty miles ; for 1 have come to the conclusion 
that the kos in this part of India is nearly, if not 
altogether, equal to one and a half English miles. 
The general face of the country is more than usually 
barren, though there were many villages and nume- 
rous karil trees. Our station to-day is in the vicinity 
of the village already named, which is not very large. 

Thermometer at three P.M. in the shade, 60°. A 
newly raised regiment is encamped in our vicinity. 
They muster about eight hundred men. They are 
commanded by an Englishman. There are three or 
four Englishmen, as many Frenchmen, and one 
American, in Ranjit's service. Chiefly by the aid 
of one or two of the French officers, a large part of 
his army has been trained according to European 





Tour to lahor — ranjit singh. 

Reach Lahor — Visits of two fakir courtiers — Interview with the King 
— Conversations with the fakirs — Invitations to see dancing girls 
declined — Mussulman version of David's repentance — Appearance 
of Lahor — An armed Maulavi. 

February 6. — To Lahor, eighteen miles. From 
Amritsir to this city there is a gradual descent in 
the plain, so that a canal, had been dug to supply 
Lahor with water from the canal which furnishes 
that important element to the good people of Amrit- 
sir. This canal runs side by side with the road, but 
is now dry; and it is said another has been formed 
for the same purpose. Lahor lies rather south of 
west from Amritsir. The intervening country ex- 
hibits a more barren appearance than any other 
part of the Panjab we have seen ; though, owing 
probably to the vicinity of the two cities just named, 
the number of villages is greater. The soil is of 
a hard, dark, sandy nature. A few miles from 
Lahor the whole scene changes, and the road passes 
through an extremely fertile tract of country, 
covered with luxuriant fields of wheat and fine 
gardens, and adorned with beautiful mango and 
tamarind trees. One of the gardens, the Shalabagh, 



is a mile by half a mile in extent, filled with orange, 
pomegranate, rose, and other beautiful trees. This 
tract is abundantly irrigated by means of numerous 
Persian wheels. 

At two or three miles' distance, we entered the 
ruins of the formicr city. A great many mosques, 
temples, palaces, and tombs, are seen in every direc- 
tion, and in every stage of dilapidation. Some are 
almost entire ; but m.ost are greatly injured. Of 
some, the domes are yet unimpaired, while the pil- 
lars which support them totter in every breeze, and 
must soon share the common fate. These ruins are 
very extensive ; so that Labor may be termed the 
Delhi of the Panjab, if not in the magnificence, at 
least in the extent, of the ruins of its former self. 

The present city presents a good appearance at a 
distance; as it is compactly built, and has several 
lofty towers, and many brick houses of considerable 
height. We were conducted to an extensive gar- 
den of orange trees, in which a French officer had 
erected a large summer residence. This place has 
been assigned for our lodgings, and is all that I could 
wish ; as it is retired, and yet sufficiently near the 
city, being about a quarter of a mile outside of the 

In the afternoon, Nur Ud Din, one of the chief 
men, brought the Ziafat, or present, with the addi- 
tion of much profession about the good understand- 
ing existing between the British government and 
themselves. This I was prepared to expect. He is 
a Fakir, or religious mendicant, though nothing in 

Tour to laiior. 


his manner or appearance would indicate his pro- 
fessional character. He made many remarks of a 
reh'gious kind ; but they were common-place and in- 
definite in their nature. He introduced the subject 
of an Enghsh school in a skilful manner ; inquir* 
ing successively, how I, who understood so little 
of the native language, could teach the English to 
natives ; how I should act, if different pupils wished 
to learn different branches, — -who should decide. 
The answers seemed to give much satisfaction, and 
suggested another question, which 1 think was the 
chief object of his long interview, though he pre- 
sented it as if it were a matter of no importance ; 
" If a Government established a school, who should 
decide on the branches to be taught ?" I answered^ 
" The Government, certainly." This was " very 
good," he thought. I took care to add, however, 
that if a Government should establish a school, it 
would still be optional with persons proposing to 
take charge of its instruction, to do so or not, as 
they might approve or disapprove of its plan, to 
which he assented. The whole conversation was as 
abstract as if we had been sitting somev/here in the 
region of the north star ; but its bearing on the 
points of interest here on the earth, and at Labor, is 
sufficiently obvious. 

Fakir Nur Ud Din is very much of a courtier ; 
perhaps I should say, of an eastern statesman, in his 
manners — grave, cautious, cool ; yet abounding in 
compliments, and apparently very self-complacent. 
He has a fine large forehead, good eyes, and greyish 


Tour to LAttoit. 

beard ; he is about fifty years of age, and dresses 

February 7. — -Last night a note came from Nur 
Ud Din, apprising me that he had communicated the 
conversation at our interview to the Maha Rajah, 
who expressed much satisfaction, &c. ; that his bro- 
ther (the chief man here) v^ould come to see me 
to-day ; and w^ishing to know whether I would prefer 
to pay my respects to the King to-day or to-morrow. 
1 sent an answer, that I would prefer going to-day ; 
but would leave the Maha Rajah to decide. 

To-day, Aziz Ud Din, the prime minister, called, 
with a present from Ranjit Singh of pomegranates 
and grapes ; and afterwards, oranges, &c. The 
conversation was miscellaneous, and a little more of 
a business character than yesterday. It turned, 
however, chiefly on the friendship subsisting be- 
tween the British and themselves, now known to all 
the world, cenienting the two nations into one, 
causing them great joy to see the face of anj^ Euro- 
pean. Then some inquiries about my health ; what 
would become of the school at Lodiana, if I should 
leave ; what had been the course of my studies ; 
whether including military science, &c. Having 
mentioned that I expected some friends to arrive, he 
inquired very particularly both as to the time of 
their coming and my probable leaving. 

This Fakir, as well as his brother, yesterday, paid 
me some high and extravagant compliments ; chiefly 
expressive of their great joy at seeing me, and the 
great pleasure my conversation gave them. I have 



every reason to think they were perfectly meaning- 
less, if not insincere ; yet an instance or two will be 
amusing. Yesterday, the Faki'r said; "The bud of 
my heart (that is, my dearest bud), which was shut 
up, has been opened by the wind of your conversa- 
tion into a fine flower." To-day, at taking leave, the 
Fakir, in expressing his great happiness at having 
the interview, said, that, " I was like a treasury of 
precious jewels, which he could not obtain," refer- 
ring to my not being able to communicate the know- 
ledge to him which he supposed I possessed. I was 
quite at fault when he referred to " an ancient tradi- 
tion about the philosopher's stone which converted 
everything into gold ; but if even a leaf intervened 
between the stone and the material to be changed 
into gold, then the latter received little benefit." At 
first, I thought the remark was intended as a display 
of learning ; but saw presently that it was a further 
compliment in reference to the difficulty of commu- 
nicating by an interpreter. This Fakir is a very 
different looking man from his brother. His coun- 
tenance indicates distrust and suspicion, yet much 
sagacity. His conversation was marked with good 
sense, less display, and a more direct " coming to the 
point," than that of his brother. He has evidently 
been much in intercourse with the world ; and I 
detected him scrutinizing my countenance with an 
almost embarrassing closeness. He is about of mid- 
dle stature, dresses very plainly, and wears a full 
beard, dyed blue by way of ornament. 

February 8. — We went, about 8 o'clock, to pay 



our respects to the Maha Rajah. He was seated in 
an open hall, on the highest ground in the inclosure 
where his palace is erected, and was surrounded by 
about a dozen of his chief men, all dressed very 
richly, and sitting on rich crimson cushions. After 
being seated on the floor like the rest, and exchanging 
the usual compliments, I presented the English Bible 
and Gurmukhi Pentateuch which! had brought with 
me for that purpose. He then asked, without 
any further introduction, " Where is God ?" " It 
would be as easy to answer the question, Where 
is he not ?" " Well, if you don't know where God 
is, how can you worship him?" Inferring from 
what I saw, that it was their intention to make a 
trial of my skill in such subjects, I answered more 
fully : " We do know that God is everywhere pre- 
sent; though he specially reveals himself in heaven ; 
that he can see us, though we cannot see him ; and 
that he has made known in his holy word (pointing 
to the Bible I had presented), how we should wor- 
ship him." The answer appeared very satisfactory. 
" What precepts has God given in his word ?" I 
mentioned the two great commandments ; which also 
gave much satisfaction. " But what will be done to 
those who disobey his commandments?" "God 
will punish them with eternal suffering in the next 
world." " If so, why do rulers punish men who 
commit murder, for instance, in this world ?" " Rulers 
are appointed by God to punish in this world many 
kinds of wickedness; but all will have to give an 
account, in the next world, to God, both rulers and 



subjects." He inquired if that was so written in our 
Scriptures. I took occasion, then, to mention that 
"Christians believe that they may avoid the suffering 
in the next world which is due to all men for sin, 
by trusting in the Lord Jesus Christ." The ques- 
tions proposed subsequently did not appear to be 
intended as a trial of my ability to answer them ; 
but rather to be prompted by Sikh curiosity. Hav- 
ing inquired about my learning, and whether it 
included military and medical branches, he made 
some inquiries about his interview with the Governor 
General two or three years ago at Rupar. Then he 
inquired about my acquaintance with horses ; and 
rising from his cushion he led the way to an outer 
hall, where being again seated, he asked further ques- 
tions about my health; whether married ; why I wore 
crape on my hat ; why I wore spectacles, &c., to all 
which I gave briefly the proper answers. Then, telling 
me that the Faldr would come to see me, and to talk 
about other subjects, permission was given to take 

February 9. — Yesterday afternoon. Fakir Aziz 
Ud Din came again to see me, and two boys pre- 
sently arrived, wishing to study English under my 
direction while I remain here. They are the sons 
of one of the chief ministers. Before they came, 
the Fakir, inquiring about the books lying on the 
table, wished to hear ine read out of the Greek Tes- 
tament. I turned to the latter part of the third 
chapter of John's Gospel, and read the distinct testi- 
mony there given to our Saviour's mission. Polite 



as the Fakir was determined to be, his Mussuhnan 
prejudices would not allow him to say " durust, 
khub" (good, excellent), to all that was read ; though 
he did not manifest the opposition I expected. I had 
an opportunity of explaining the sense in which 
Christians hold the doctrine of Father and Son, in 
the Trinity, which is so very ofiensive to the 
Mohammedans, partly because they understand our 
creed in the sense those terms convey in regard to 
human relations. Afterwards, I read the apostle's 
glowing and sublime account of the resurrection, 
1st Corinthians xv. ; with which he was much pleas- 
ed. The more I see of this man, the higher my 
opinion rises of his talents and address. There is a 
sound of sincerity also in his voice, which is pleasing, 
even though one cannot trust it, because contra- 
dicted by the sinister expression of his eye. 

In the afternoon to-day, it was announced that 
the Bara Fakir," the chief Fakir, was coming ; 
and presently the news was brought, that he had 
stopped to say his prayers in the garden. About a 
quarter of an hour afterwards, he made his appear- 
ance, and told me himself that he had been to pray- 
ers. I made some remark about that being a good 
employment, which led to a long series of remarks 
and quotations from the Koran, in Arabic, on the 
subject of religion, as if he were determined to 
inflict punishment for the Greek of yesterday. He 
assented to an observation, that prayers should not 
be made to be seen of men, and that they should be 
from the heart, with much cordiality ; and went on 



to give illustrations, which were very appropriate. 
He informed me at last that he was a Sufi Mussul- 
man (nearly a freethinker in that sect), and believed 
in all the prophets, Jewish, Christian, and Mussul- 
man, to the number of many thousand. 

One thing in which we both agreed was, that we 
should not reason or dispute about anything that 
God makes known for us to believe ; but should 
receive it at once. I stipulated, however, that we 
should exercise our reason to judge what God had 
revealed, or what book contained his will. To this 
he agreed after some demurring. I then wished him, 
as he was a learned Mussulman, to tell me, in some 
of his visits, why he believed the Koran to be the 
word of God. The request was obviously not very 
agreeable. However, he quoted, in a sort of singing, 
or chanting tone, a long Arabic sentence from the 
Koran about God, as our Creator, Preserver, &lc. ; 
and ended with telling me, that Mohammed had 
challenged the Arabs to produce anything equal to a 
chapter of the Koran, which he, though illiterate, 
had spoken to them ; and, if they could not do so, 
then they should believe in his mission. Thus the 
Fakir argued for the divine authority of the Koran 
from the excellence of its style ; but as I had previ- 
ously obtained his consent to hear me explain the 
reasons of our religious faith at some other time, I 
deemed it best to waive argument on this occasion. 

In the evening, a guard of forty soldiers was sent. 
It would be useless to decline their service ; as it 



would be said they are necessary for the Maha Rajah^s 
dignity, if not for mine. 

Februari/ 11. — At an early hour to-day, the Maha 
Rajah sent one of his officers to conduct me to pay 
him a visit. He was encamped on the plain about 
two miles from the city, preparatory -to going on a 
hunting excursion. A regiment of good looking men 
were on guard, and a considerable number of fine 
horses, in which Ranjit takes great pleasure ; and 
some elephants were also brought forward for pur- 
poses of show. The tent, which was quite large, 
was made of fine Cashmere shawls. In the Rajah's 
immediate presence there was no particular display 
of state on this occasion. 

He received me with much favor ; which I soon 
perceived was owing not a little to his having heard 
from his Envoy at Calcutta, that some of my friends 
there, who are high in office, wished him to show me 
kind attentions. It is almost amusing to see the 
anxiety which pervades this court, to please the 
English authorities. He made some remarks about 
my having begged to decline accompanying him on 
his hunting tour ; and promised to send for me, if he 
should find any lions or tigers. 

A few days ago, he had sent me an invitation to 
be present at a public entertainment ; which I 
accepted at first, but afterwards, on further reflec- 
tion, I had desired to be excused from going, as I 
learned that a part of the amusement was to consist 
of the dancing of the Nach girls. The circumstance 



was quite an awkward one, and I fear gave offence ; 
but I feel glad to have been led to think of the 
impropriety of being present, before it was too late 
to draw back. To-day, a good many of his remarks 
had an indirect reference to that circumstance. He 
inquired particularly about our liberty to drink wine, 
which was part of the amusement, and which, know- 
ing the scruples of the Mussulmans, he may have 
supposed to have been my real motive for declining. 
However, I honestly explained, that our religion for- 
bids all loose conduct in women, and also all en- 
couragement of such conduct by men ; and that I 
could not be present without thereby giving the 
sanction of my influence to the shameful profession 
of these girls. He said something about their per- 
formance being in his presence, and not at my house, 
and added, " If you have not seen the Nach girls of 
Labor, what have you seen ?" The higher classes 
in this country are passionately fond of witnessing 
these dances. But 1 persisted in thinking that the 
influence of my example would be the same in either 
case, and in declining, with as good a grace as I 
could, to see them. When he found I was firm, he 
paid some compliments to my consistency. I note 
this circumstance the more readily, because it throws 
some light upon the corrupt manners of this court, 
and because I feel thankful at having had the oppor- 
tunity of partially explaining the precepts of our 
religion in regard to a vice which is so very common 
in this dark land. 

February 12. — Fakir Nur UdDin to-day, remarked, 



that in his rehgion their prayers were in Arabic, 
according to certain forms ; and wished me to tell 
him about our forms of prayer. I mentioned that 
we were required to pray with the understanding, 
and therefore made use of a language which we 
could understand ; and that our Sacred Scriptures 
teach us how to pray, and what to pray for, but give 
us few forms. After reading Matthew vi. 5-13, we 
had a long conversation on religion, as to the mode 
of obtaining pardon for sin. He urged that it was 
only necessary to be sorry for it. I referred him 
to the course of human justice, which mere sor- 
row could not arrest, and explained to him our belief 
in the atonement for sin which Christ has made. 
He then professed to believe in the Pentateuch, the 
Gospels, and the Koran ; in Moses, Christ, and 
Mohammed. I referred him to some of the points, 
not only of difference, but of contradiction, between 
the latter and the former ; especially, that the one 
requires confidence in Christ Jesus, as Mediator 
between God and men, and in no other ; while the 
other requires the same confidence in Mohammed, 
and in no other. He professed to believe them both ! 

February 15, Lord's Day. — The chief Fakir came 
and spent two or three hours in conversation con- 
cerning various important topics of religion. I was 
glad to find that his brother and himself had been 
talking the matter over since our last conversation ; 
and this man, to-day, seemed anxious to show that 
repentance for sin was sufficient in the sight of God 
to secure its forgiveness. This he illustrated by 



quoting the example of David, in reference to the 
sin against Uriah. I was amused at the appearance 
of the narrative after its Mussuhnan transmigration : 
" David was at prayer, during which it is a great 
sin to think of anything else, when a very beautiful 
bird appeared very near him. He was tempted to 
try to catch it ; but it hopped away further and further, 
until it led him to the parapet of the roof, and then 
it flew away. But he was thus led to see the wife 
of his prime minister bathing herself, &c. Then, 
at^ter he was convinced of his sin, by means of a 
quarrel between two men, one rich and the other 
poor, about a camel, he fasted and wept at the tomb 
of Uriah, until he obtained his forgiveness for some 
unknown crime ; but God would not confirm the 
pardon, unless he would obtain Uriah's forgiveness 
for the crime, after making it known to him. Again 
David fasted and prayed, and wept, for many, many 
months, at the tomb, and at last God forgave him." 
I turned to the simple and affecting parable of Nathan, 
and read it, and also the verses in which punishment 
was denounced — a part of the narrative which the 
Mussulman account of the story omits. This 
answered two purposes ; it showed one instance of 
difference between the Koran and the Bible ; and it 
showed that justice must be satisfied. The Fakir 
saw the force of another remark, that we are always 
under the highest obligation to love and serve God, 
and therefore cannot, in future, atone for past sins ; 
and exclaimed, " Then, what must a man do who 
has been an infidel for twenty years ? Must he 




always suffer punishment?" This gave ine a fine 
opportunity of mentioning the method of salvation 
through the merits of Christ. I illustrated these 
remarks by a reference to my own hopes, which 
seemed to interest his mind. 

In regard to the oneness of the Mussulman and 
Christian systems, the great argument always is, that 
God may give additional revelation, adapted to the 
circumstances of different people. After pointing 
out some essential points of difference, I stated that 
God had made known that the Gospel was intended 
for all men in all ages • and therefore it imphed a 
reflection both on his unchangeableness and his 
wisdom, as well as his truth, to admit the Mussul- 
man system. He asked where it was expressly writ- 
ten that it was intended always for all. I referred to 
the commission given by our Saviour at the close of 
the Gospel of Matthew, and also to the solemn 
conclusion of the Bible in the last of Revelation. 
It struck me as singular, that these Fakirs should 
wish to claim a brotherhood for their system with 
the Christian. Perhaps it is owmg partly to infi- 
delity as to any system, and partly to a wish to rank 
respectably in the eyes of those whom they see to be 
so much their superiors in other respects, as Chris- 
tians usually are. 

At parting with this man to-day, I gave him three 
tracts, and could not but feel grateful that my posi- 
tion here is so regarded as to secure for them a 
thankful acceptance, and probably a careful perusal. 
This is one advantage of making this journey under 



these circumstances to balance some serious disad- 
vantages, that it gives me access to some of the most 
influential persons in the community. The Lord 
bless the truth presented in this conversation ! The 
congregation was small — the Fakir, one attendant, 
and the interpreter ; but their souls are of infinite 
worth, and their conversion would, in human view, 
produce unspeakably important results. 

February 21. — I have spent several afternoons in 
" sight-seeing," visiting the principal public buildings 
and places of interest. The first was a large mosque, 
from the top of one of whose minarets there is an 
extensive view of the city and country around. It 
is in a bad state of repair, and contains nothing 
worthy of notice, unless it be a kind of inlaying of 
clay, resembling porcelain, and painted with bright 
and very durable colors, as they still retain their 
lustre, though upwards of two hundred years old. 
Next day, we went to see the mosque built by the 
great Akber, at the north extremity of the city. It 
has three domes, faced on the outside with white 
marble, and its four large and lofty minarets, faced 
with a fine red sandstone, are among the most con- 
spicuous objects in the city. But now all is in a 
state of ruinous decay, the whole place being used aj? 
barracks for a company of infantry, who pile up their 
arms in one of the holiest apartments of the mosque, 
while they sleep in another. These minarets are 
probably one hundred and twenty feet high. 

The palace of Akber contains one tolerably good 
hall of audience, open on three sides, supported by 



graceful marble columns, and having a recess on the 
fourth side for the royal seat — all on the same plan, 
and nearly as good as in the palace at Delhi. But 
in what a changing world we live ! In the hall where 
suppliant prmces once knelt in the great emperor's 
presence, Ranjit now keeps picketed among the 
marble columns some half a dozen horses ! There 
are various apartments adjoining this hall of audience ; 
some of them designed for the females of the Rajah's 
family ; others covered with paintings of Hindu gods 
and goddesses. Among the paintings are two repre- 
senting Ranjit as a suppliant, but standing before 
Guru Nanak and Guru Govind Singh ; while another 
is intended to represent his interview with Lord 
William Bentinck at Rupar. The Einglish people, in 
the hands of the artist, have been made to present a 
ridiculous appearance. The art of painting is 
obviously in a rude state among these people. But 
these efforts attracted many exclamations of "good, 
good," from the attendants. The best parts of the 
display of taste are the numerous jets d'eau, to keep 
the air fresh and cool. 

In visiting these "lions" of the city, we usually 
rode on an elephant, the best mode in such dirty 
streets as we had to traverse. A sewer, containing 
black, filthy mud and water, runs in the middle of 
every street, threatening defilement, unless a person 
is elevated too high to be spattered when a galloping 
horse dashes along. The streets, moreover, are all 
so narrow that two elephants cannot pass each other, 
nor even a camel and an elephant, as we had frequent 



opportunities of seeing, and sometimes at no little 
expense of patience, in waiting until the way could 
be made clear. To meet a string of some twenty or 
thirty camels, as we did one evening, is no very 
agreeable matter to a person who may wish to lose 
no time. 

The houses are from three to five stories high, and 
nearly all built of bricks that have been dug out of 
the ruins of the old city. Their appearance, there- 
fore, is quite in keeping with that of the streets. 
They are built very densely together. The narrow 
bazars are crowded, and the streets are full of people. 
The population seems to be very great, and not to 
be diminishing. The walls of the city, and its 
mosques, and the fort, certainly do present the 
appearance of decay. But that seems to be owing 
to the Maha Rajah's neglect. He takes more inter- 
est in building up Amritsir. The population of 
Labor cannot be less than one hundred thousand ; 
yet the present city is a mere village compared with 
the ancient, if an opinion may be formed from the 
ruins of the latter. These extend four or five miles 
in length, by three in breadth ; and even now, 
upwards of fifty large mosques and other public 
buildings remain, besides a great number of smaller 
ones — all, however, in a ruinous condition. 

February 23. — To-day a respectable Maulavi 
came to see me. He had a sword sticking at one 
side of his sash, and a pistol at the other. In other 
respects, his appearance was very pleasing, being a 
middle-aged man, of an intelligent, lively countenance. 



I inquired how he accounted for the apparent change 
in the spirit of Mussulmans, so that we now seldom 
hear of force being employed to make converts ; and 
also, how he justified the use of the sword in making 
proselytes. The questions were rather difficult to 
answer. However, he referred to the command of 
God in the Koran ; thought the practice proper only 
when the infidels refused to believe, after suitable 
efforts had been made to convince them ; and con- 
cluded with the usual remark, that it is not proper 
to reason about God's commandments. The latter 
remark I, of course, assented to, when we know 
what God has commanded, but not till then. I 
explained to him our mode of advocating Christianity ; 
adding, that, as to those who refuse to believe in 
Jesus, we think it both their loss and their sin. For 
the former, we pity them ; and, as to the latter, we 
are not able to punish them as they deserve, but pre- 
fer to leave them in the hands of God ; and then 
asked, which plan he thought most honorable to the 
character of God? After approving our method, he 
evaded expressing an opinion as to which is best. 
On promising him the loan of a Testament, he took 
leave. He says there are about a dozen Maulavis 
in this city. 



RANJiT Singh's hunting excursion — notes on the 


Leave Labor for the hunting ground — Hunting Company — Manner of 
despatching business at Court — Dismission granted — Notes on the 
Panjab and the Sikhs, 

February 28. — Agreeably to an arrangement made 
within the last few days, I left Lahor this afternoon, 
to join the Maha Rajah on his hunting ground. 
Fakir Nur Ud Din came to conduct me out of the 
city. We had some conversation about the pro- 
phecies contained in our Sacred Scriptures, which 
grew out of an inquiry of his about foretelling the 
future by astrology. He wished to know what 
would come to pass according to our prophecies. 
After referring him to several that have been fulfilled, 
I read some passages out of Isaiah concerning the 
future progress of the gospsl. They appeared inte- 
resting to him, though he did not express any opinion 
about them. I could not but offer up a silent prayer 
that we may soon witness their fulfilment. After- 
wards, I gave him about a dozen of tracts, as a part- 
ing gift ; with which he was pleased. We crossed 
the Ravi about six miles to the southwest, and 



encamped in the midst of wheat fields two or three 
miles from the ferry. The waters of this river are 
of a red muddy color. It flows here through a flat 
country, and is about forty or fifty yards wide. The 
fields of grain on its banks are full of promise. 

March 1, Lord's Day. — We made no journey 
to-day, though the halt was not so much to the satis- 
faction of the people who were with me as on a 
former occasion. Word has been received that a 
tiger has been found, and they are anxious to reach 
the hunting party so as to partake in the sport. The 
Maha Rajah, too, would no doubt prefer my omitting 
to observe this day ; but it is better to please God 
than man. 

March 2. — To Mahadevi, ten miles over a barren 
heath, without any cultivation, or any production, 
except a sort of desert grass and some stunted thorn- 
trees. We learned, as we drew near the camp, that 
the tiger had been killed yesterday, much to the 
regret of the people with me. 

In the afternoon I went with the Maha Rajah and 
his people on their daily hunt. The company was 
very singular in appearance to my eye, consisting of 
several hundred men, in white, yellow, and red, and 
often very rich, robes and uniforms ; some on ele- 
phants, of which there were nearly thirty ; some on 
camels ; many on all sorts of horses, from the very 
finest to the most sorry ; and more still on foot, some 
carrying guns, others swords, others spears and 
shields ; some leading dogs, others carrying falcons ; 
and all this cavalcade in the midst of a barren plain, 



covered only with densely standing long grass, and 
scrub thorn bushes. We took a circuit of several 
miles, but started nothing except a few birds and 
deer. There is no little enthusiasm of feeling on 
such an occasion ; and I was not sorry to have the 
opportunity of seeing this favorite sport of eastern 
kings. I had some miscellaneous conversation with 
the Rajah by the way, and more after our return. 
Almost the only topic of importance was a state- 
ment, on being asked if I had read the books of 
different religious systems, that the Christian religion 
differed from others chiefly in teaching that all men 
are sinners, and that Christ died to open the way for 
pardon to be given ; and hence it is that we love 
him so much. To all which, at the end of each 
clause, the Maha Rajah gave his short but expressive 
"MzA;"— good. I was not sorry to find that my 
declining to see the dancing girls had been thought 
about ; and it led to a question or two which gave 
me the opportunity of stating the seventh command- 
ment, and some other duties. 

' March 3.— To a village five miles east of Maha- 
devi. While at the Court, after arriving, the Maha 
Rajah transacted some business of an unimportant 
nature. It was curious to see the half-business, 
half-conversational manner of their proceeding. As 
each item was mentioned, something was said by 
him either of approval or alteration, which was 
assented to b}^ the courtiers seated arcl^l^nd, who 
hardly ventured even to make a suggestion ; while 
anecdotes, remarks about different persons, queries 




to myself, &c., occupied so much attention, that only 
the writers appeared to be employed in business. 
They watched their opportunity, whenever there 
was a lull in the miscellaneous talk, to read the 
statement they v/ere making. I had mentioned 
during the ride, that if the Granth were a printed 
book it would not cost more probably than twenty 
rupees. This remark the Rajah repeated in court, 
and it became the subject of a good deal of conver- 
sation. A manuscript copy costs from one to two 
hundred rupees. 

March 4. — To the encampment between three 
villages about four miles south of yesterday's halting 
place. The Maha Rajah set out in the morning 
without sending me word of his movements. I was 
not sorry to have the opportunity of declining to go 
in the sun, and so refused to follow, until I 'should 
be so inclined. This measure no doubt was not 
gratifying to him ; but I do not feel it to be a duty 
to ride in the sun and dust among the crowd, when 
so little seems now likely to be gained for my gene- 
ral object. 

March 5. — ^This afternoon I obtained my dismis- 
sion. Previously the chief minister had informed 
me of the Khilat, or present, that would be given ; 
which, though customary on such occasions, was 
yet on a much more liberal scale than I had expected. 
The Maha Rajah was in high good humor when we 
were procont. I took opportunity to explain my 
connexion with the Missionary Society, and that 
the presents he had been so kind as to give me, 



would be made over to its funds. He listened with 
a half-incredulous air ; but it occurred to me to illus- 
trate the matter by a reference to a rule of the East 
India Company, requiring their servants to deliver 
all preserfts that may be made to them to the proper 
officer. With this rule he is well acquainted, and 
the reference seemed satisfactory, but led to various 
questions about the Society : " Is it a Government 
Company ? What are its objects ?" I explained the 
manper in which funds were raised ; and that they 
were given thus by religious people, to promote reli- 
gion and education ; and also, that those who were 
sent as missionaries were influenced by religious 
motives, receiving from these Societies merely what 
was sufficient for their comfortable support; adding, 
that some of them might have received larger sala- 
ries at home. This he evidently did not believe ; 
but he seemed interested by the explanation ; praised 
the conduct of the people in forming such a Society ; 
wished to know if I would give them these presents ; 
and added, that I must tell them, at any rate, that 
he gave the horse (a fine Turkman pony) to myself, 
not to the Society. When I had explained that the 
Society was not a Government concern, he wished 
to know about the padris, or clergymen, what con- 
nexion they had with the Government. I explained, 
that it was merely that of other citizens. " What ! 
if a padri commits a crime, will they punish him 
like another man !" " Certainly." This he deemed 
wonderful ; and certainly it is very different from 
th^e impunity with which the Akalis, the Sikh 

186 fHE PANJA6 Al^D THE SlKH?. 

devotees, commit the most disgraceful crimes here. 
I could not but feel grateful for the difference. I 
was very glad to have the opportunity of making 
this explanation in regard to these presents. It may 
remove, in part, the impression that 1 am influenced 
merely by selfish and pecuniary viev/s. But I fear 
this impression will remain, notwithstanding, on the 
minds of many of these people. On the whole, I 
think it would have been better to have declined 
receiving any of the presents, if it could have bpen 
done without giving too much offence. 

In the evening, the chief Fakir came to bid me 
good-bye ; and afterwards the Rajah's chief Mun- 
shi, Kahan Chand, who has been with me, by the 
appointment of RanjU Singh, since leaving Labor. 
The latter is a most respectable man, of clear, good 
mind, and pleasing manners, without the obsequious- 
ness so common, and with much apparent sincerity. 
I have become much interested in him. We had a 
good deal of conversation, chiefly on religious sub- 
jects. He inquired what was the appearance of 
God, how we could think of him, &c. In reply, I 
illustrated my remarks by referring to our own 
spirits. He seemed interested in hearing of the 
way our Sacred Scriptures teach that sin can be 
pardoned, and also of the intellectual and social 
elevation of the female sex in Christian countries. 
He wished to know whether their advantages were 
owing to our religion, or to our usage or custom. I 
told him of their condition when our forefathers 
were heathens. Expressing his warm wishes that 


my health may be restored, so that I might remain 
in this country, and he might become better 
acquainted with me in future, kind feehngs which I 
sincerely reciprocated with my best wishes in return, 
we exchanged our last farewell. I could not but 
feel sorry at parting with these men. In many res- 
pects, they are interesting men, whose acquaintance 
I have been glad to make, and with whom my inter- 
course has been of a varied and friendly nature. 
But now we have parted, most probably never to 
meet again. What a precious hope Christian friends 
enjoy when separated ! Whatever be their path on 
earth, they can look upwards to a place of meeting, 
to say. Farewell, no more for ever. 

The following summary views of the informa- 
tion acquired during this tour were communicated 
to the Secretary of the Society, on returning to 

L Population. — It is not easy to form an estimate 
that would be at all accurate. It is probable that 
Ranjit Singh's rule extends over two millions of 
persons ; of whom the greater part occupy the coun- 
try bounded by the Sutlej, the Indus, and the Hima- 
laya mountains, including the valley of Cashmercj 
and the Hill States on the south-western sides of 
those mountains from the river Sutlej to Cashmere. 
Ranjit has, within the last few years, made some 
conquests on the western side of the Indus ; and 
has, at present, possession of Peshawer, one of the 
chief Affghan cities. It is doubtful whether he 



will be able, or deem it expedient to retain these 

2. Climate. — The name Panjab, pronounced as if 
written Punjaub, in strict propriety, belongs only to 
the plains ; while a large section of the country, 
descending from the Himalaya mountains, is quite 
hilly. Both these regions, and also part of the region 
south and east of the Sutlej, are classed by the older 
writers under the general name of the Province of 
Labor ; of which the population is said to be about 
four millions. The climate of the plains is much 
more oppressively hot during the warm season of the 
year, that is, from March to November, than that of 
the hills. The heat is probably as great as in almost 
any part of Upper India; and there is the same 
variation of seasons, as hot, rainy, &c. In the cold 
season the thermometer falls as low sometimes as the 
freezing point, in the plains. Last winter, in which 
there u'ere some very cold mornings, the thermome- 
ter, at Lodiana, was once down to 28° in the open 
air at sunrise. Lodiana is in nearly the same lati- 
tude as Labor, and about equally distant from the 
hills. Throughout this region, the hot winds begin 
to blow in April, and are very trying to the health 
of foreigners. 

3. Language. — The spoken language seems to be 
substantially that of the Hindus generally. It is, 
however, called the Panjabi, and contains an admix- 
ture of many Persian words. There are three or 
four characters in use : the Persian, for the Persian 
language, and also for the Hindustani; the Dev 



Nagari, for the Hindui, which differs but little from 
the Hindustani; the Gurmukhi, for the written lan- 
guage of the Sikhs ; the Kashmiri, for the written 
language of Cashmere. The two last characters are 
obviously derived from the Nagari ; and I should 
think the dialects, which receive these names, differ 
but little from the common language of the Hindus, 

4. Education.-^lt is not probable that one person 
in every hundred is able to read. Of those who can 
read, the four fifths, probably, read only the Persian, 
A few of the Sikhs read the Gurmukhi ; and a few 
of the Cashmerians, perhaps, read Kashmiri ; though 
I never met with a Cashmerian who could read that 
character, while I have met with several who could 
read the Persian. 

Of those who acquire a knowledge of the writ= 
ten language, few learn anything beyond the sim- 
plest rudim.ents. There are scarcely any books, and 
there are none suitable for purposes of instruction. 
The schools are very few, and under the worst ma= 
nagement. Sometimes the teachers are paid by reli- 
gious persons, or else, as is most common, are them- 
selves religious persons, such as Fakirs. In other 
instances, a trifling sum is paid by each scholar. 
No effort is m.ade to develope the minds of the scholars. 
Everything is learned by rote. In the Mussulman 
schools, for higher scholars, one of the first things is 
to teach the boy to read the Koran in Arabic, with- 
out even pretending to teach him the meaning of a 
single word. And this is considered rather a high 
attainment. It is not uncommon for Hindu and 



Sikh pandits and gurus, and sometimes for the Mus^ 
sulman maulavis, to expound their respective sacred 
writings at the places of religious resort ; and thus 
a species of knowledge is learned by some of the 
people. But in all the parts of India where I have 
been, it is not unusual to see a religious man bawling 
away without receiving the least attention ; though 
he may be sitting in the most sacred place, and 
reading, or rather chanting, their most sacred writ- 

5. Government. — ^Originally, the people were go- 
verned by numerous chiefs, who were independent of 
each other, though of very unequal power. These 
chiefs were brought into subjection to RanjU Singh, 
who would no doubt have extended his power over 
the chiefs on the south-eastern side the Sutlej also^ 
if they had not applied for and received English 
protection. Some of the conquered chiefs Ranjit 
removed altogether from their possessions ; others he 
permitted to retain their districts, Variously altered ; 
but exacted from them a kind of tribute — either a 
quota of troops, or an annual payment in money ; or 
in some cases both of these acknowledgments of 
subjection. On the death of one of these inferior 
rulers, further changes were often made ; though the 
general usage is that the soji shall succeed the father. 
Frequently persons in favor are rewarded with tracts 
of country in jag/iir, that is, for which they pay a 
specified sum, and then have the entire management 
of the collection of revenue, administration of jus- 
tice, &LC., in these particular districts. They may 



act as oppressively as they please ; and usually they 
do extort as large an amount from the poor as they 
can. It is very seldom that any appeal is made ; as 
it would require too much money, in the way of 
bribes to the courtiers, to bring grievances to the 
notice of the Maha Rajah ; and as it would not be 
certain that redress would be obtained, even if a 
hearing could be secured. It was very much owing 
to the oppressive administration of one of these 
favorites, or rather of his myrmidons, that the beau- 
tiful valley of Cashmere has become so desolate. 

This mode of government probably suits RanjU's 
acquirements better than any other. As he can 
neither read nor write, it would be troublesome to 
examine the usual forms and records of proceed- 
ings ; while now he holds comparatively a few per- 
sons responsible for certain specified sums. Yet it 
is obviously liable to great abuse. Some of the 
Sardars, or chiefs, have large revenues. One or two 
have each about twelve lakhs of rupees yearly, equal 
to six hundred thousand dollars ; another, seven 
lakhs , another five, &c., but the greater part of 
them are much less powerful. The chiefs are all 
Sikhs, I believe ; but many holders of jaghirs are 
Hindus and Mussulmans. There seems to be no law 
in the Panjab ; though there is, in regard to many 
things, long established custom. By all accounts, 
justice would seem to be regarded as a thing to be 
bought and sold. Punishment, even for murder, is 
said to be rarely inflicted, when a sufficient sum of 



money can be offered by the criminal. Fines are 
the most common punishment. 

Ranji't Singh is certainly a man of superior mind, 
and of no ordinary character. All his measures, and 
his conversation, evince great sagacity, prudence, 
and acquaintance with the strong points of the sub- 
ject under his consideration. He is much superior 
to many of the prejudices and jealousies of the Hin- 
dus, and seems anxious to imitate those things in 
the poiicy or the customs of other people which 
are better than his own. Thus, he has introduced 
amongst his people, the manufacture of various 
foreign implements of war, of several fabrics of 
cloth, &c. He has effected a striking change in the 
military force of the Sikhs. Formerly, every Sikh 
was a horseman, and no other kind of force was in 
existence than this rude cavalry. Ranjit took mto 
his service several French officers, and followed their 
advice after carefully comparing it with the English 
mode of warfare ; and now he has a large and pretty 
well organized and disciplined army of infantry, 
with the usual proportion of artillery. He was, in 
his younger days, of dissipated habits, the effects of 
which he now feels severely. He is of a licentious 
disposition ; fond of display, yet avaricious ; very 
inquisitive; inclined to pay a superstitious reverence 
to holy men, even though of a different religion ; 
passionately fond of fine horses ; very anxious to 
please the English ; blind of one eye ; about sixty- 
three years of age. What a confused account of 
his character, you will be ready to say ! So it is ; 



yet not more miscellaneous than the character 

It is understood, that he is anxious his grandson 
should succeed himself in the chief rule. But there 
is no particular bond of union, excepting the personal 
reputation and will of Ranjit himself, to prevent 
the political affairs of the Panjab from relapsing into 
their former anarchy. The moment Ranjit dies, it is 
highly probable that all this region of country will 
be in confusion, and a dozen of chiefs will declare 
themselves independent. Perhaps such a state of 
things will then follow as will bring the Panjab under 
British protection, and make the Indus, instead of 
the Sutlej, the frontier line. Such a change would 
be fraught with blessings to the people.* 
^ '?6. Religion. — The great majority of the people of 
the Panjab are Hindus, especially those of the lower 
classes. The Mussulmans are treated with less for- 
bearance and favor than the Hindus ; and form, per- 
haps, a fourth or fifth part of the inhabitants. The 
Sikhs are said not to constitute more than a twelfth 
or fifteenth part of the population. They evidently 
are much more allied to the Hindus than to the Mus- 

* This ruler has been called hence by death. His obsequies were 
celebrated with great parade and expense, and a dreadful tragedy was 
witnessed in the sell-immolation on his funeral pile of no less than 
eleven women ! Four of his wives and seven concubines cast them- 
selves into the flames which consumed his body, and miserably per- 
ished I — The Panjab continued for some time in a quiet state under 
his sons, who succeeded to the throne. Then followed a time of 
anarchy ; then, the furious onsets of the Sikh army against the British ; 
and now, in 1850, the Panjab is a part of British India. 



sulmans in their worship, and in their customs. The 
system of caste prevails, more or less, among all these 
sects ; though in regard to the Sikhs and the Mus- 
sulmans, it is not enjoined by their religion ; or 
rather, it is contrary to their creed, especially to 
that of the Sikhs ; but throughout India usage is all- 
powerful. It is supposed that this detestable system 
has less hold on the affections of the people in this 
part of India, than in most other regions of the coun- 
try. Hindus, when they become Sikhs, do not 
renounce caste, except as it bears on one or two 
inferior points. In the more important matters of 
food, of matrimonial connexions, they adhere 
as rigidly as ever to the requisitions of their caste. 

The Sikhs are divided into two general classes, 
the Sikhs and the Singhs — the disciples and the 
lions, as the terms literally import. The latter title 
is given to the followers of Guru Govind Singh, who 
infused a military spirit into the Sikh religion. The 
term Singh does not exclude, however, the use of 
the common appellative, Sikh. It is rather employed 
as one of the names of individuals ; while the title of 
Sikh is given to all the followers of that religion. 
There are some points of difference in the faith of 
the two classes ; but they relate chiefly to the more 
military spirit of the followers of Govind Singh. 
Hamilton remarks in his Gazetteer: 

" The religion of the Sikhs is described as a creed 
of pure deism, blended with the belief of all the 
absurdities of Hindu mythology, and the fables of 
Mohammedanism. Nanak Shah, the founder of this 
religion, professed a desire to reform, but not todes- 



troy the religion of the sect in which he was born ; 
and endeavored to reconcile the jarring faiths of Brah- 
ma and Mohammed, by persuading each to reject 
particular parts of their respective belief and usages. 

The earlier successors of Nanak taught nearly 
the same doctrine ; but Guru Govind gave a new 
character to the religion of his followers by many 
material alterations ; more especially by the aboli- 
tion of all distinctions of caste. The pride of descent 
might still remain and keep up some distinction ; but 
in the religious creed of Guru Govind all Sikhs, or 
Singhs, are declared equal. The admission of pro- 
selytes, the abolition of caste, the eating of all kinds 
of flesh except that of cows, the form of religious 
worship [havmg no idols or representatives of God], 
and the general devotion of the Singhs to arms, are 
all at variance with the Hindu theology." 

Again : " The Sikh Hindu converts continue all 
those civil usages and customs of the tribe to which 
they belonged, that they can practise without infring- 
ing the tenets of Nanak or the institutions of Guru 
Govind. They are very strict respecting diet and 
intermarriages. The Mohammedan converts, who 
become Sikhs, intermarry with each other ; but are 
allowed to preserve none of their usages, being oblig- 
ed to eat hog's flesh, and to abstain from circumci- 
sion. The Sikhs, or Singhs, are forbidden the use of 
tobacco ; but are allowed to indulge in spirituous 
liquors, which they all drink to excess. The use of 
opium and bang is also quite common. The military 
Sikhs never cut their hair, nor shave their beards," 



and are required to wear steel, in some shape, as a 
badge of their sect. 

The religious people of the Sikhs, or rather, of 
those Sikhs who are followers of Guru Govind, are 
called Akalis, that is immortals ; or more frequently 
by the natives Nihangs. They formerly directed 
the national council when it was assembled, the Guru- 
mala ; but there has been no meeting of that body 
since 1805, and there will not probably ever be 
another. I have not been able to learn that they 
have any particular duties to perform as ministers of 
religion. I should think they are of the same order 
as the religious mendicants of the Hindus. Their 
number is variously estimated. Perhaps, including 
their families, it may amount to thirteen thousand 
persons, or some three or four thousand men. They 
receive their support chiefly from offerings made to 
the Sikh temples ; particularly at Amritsir, where it 
is said there are nearly two thousand of these Akalis. 
Others, however, hold small jaghirs from the Govern- 
ment. Their character is exceedingly bad. They 
are a lawless and desperately depraved set of men. 
Some of the most shameless things I have ever heard 
of have been done in open daylight, in public places, 
by some of these people. The common remark is, 
that they are the worst people in the land. They 
always go strongly armed ; and as they are quite 
fanatical, persons of other religious sects have much 
to fear from their approach. In 1808, a large body 
of them attacked the English Ambassador, then in 
the Panjab, who was obliged, with his guard, to fight 



for his life. They have even insulted Ranjit Singh ; 
but he has, within a few years, imposed some re- 
straints on them ; and they are now regarded as less 
dangerous, though not less depraved, than they were 
formerly. There is reason to hope that the very 
wickedness of these people will contribute much to 
cut short their sway, and to render men more willing 
to receive the teachers of our mild and pure religion. 

Amritsir is the chief place of religious resort ; 
but, in addition to the sacred reservoir at that city, 
there are several other places of religious notoriety ; 
as the birth-place of Nanak, &c. Some of the 
Sikhs make pilojrimages, also, to the great Hindu 
place of worship at Hardwar. At Amritsir there 
are a number of gurus, or religious teachers, whose 
business is to read and to explain the Granth, their 
sacred book. Some of them are very respectable 
looking men. 

Concerning the expediency of forming at that 
time a mission establishment in the Panjab, the fol- 
lowing extract from a letter of March 26, 1835, will 
show the opinions formed after making this journey. 

" I have been much impressed with the importance 
of having an efficient mission in this field, in the 
first instance at Lodiana, and perhaps at some other 
places on the British side of the Sutlej, but eventu- 
ally to operate directly in the Panjab. 

" In these regions there are dense multitudes of 
people ; not at all inferior in body or mind, naturally, 
to any other that I have ever seen, and far superior 



to the great mass of Hindus, being energetic, inqui- 
sitive, and sagacious ; occupying, also, a tract of 
country that is immediately connected with several 
other countries in which nothing has yet been 
attempted in making known our Saviour's gospel. 
The claims of the people of the Panjab themselves, 
on our benevolence, are very great, and require an 
extensive and efficient effort to meet them ; and they 
assume still greater importance when we consider 
that these are just the people, in character and in 
geographical situation, to carry the knowledge of 
our holy religion throughout Central Asia. They 
have not now either knowledge or inclination to do 
so. They are themselves dark-minded and depraved. 
But I trust our Christian mission is the morning star 
that is to precede the full day of gospel light and 
influence among this interesting people. 

" I am not prepared, however, to conclude that it 
is expedient to attempt forming a branch of our mis- 
sion on that side of the Sutlej at present, though it 
might be practicable to do so. We had better 
occupy first some of the important places which are 
open to us in the part of India under English rule or 
direct influence, where we are not so liable to capri- 
cious interruption, and where we can enjoy some 
advantages from the intercourse, and in some 
instances, from the friendship of Europeans. There 
are several places on this side of Benares, where it 
would be extremely desirable to have such a mission 
as that of our American brethren in Ceylon, there 
being ample scope for the largest efforts." 




Arrival of the Rev. Messrs. Wilson and Newton at Calcutta — Leave 
Lodiana for Simla — English Society — Notes on the Protected Hill 
States : Face of the Country ; Snowy Mountains ; Productions ; 
Animals ; Climate ; Population ; Agriculture ; Religion ; Language ; 
Character of the People ; Valley of Kanaur. 

After reaching Lodiana, on my return from 
Lahor, I had the great satisfaction of receiving letters 
from my missionary brethren, the Rev. Messrs. John 
Newton and James Wilson, just arrived with their 
wives at Calcutta, and accompanied by Miss Davis. 
Though so far distant, and so many months would 
intervene before they could reach Lodiana, I 
could not but feel most grateful that they were in 
the country, to share with me a responsibility which 
should never rest on one man, that of laying the 
foundation of a system of efforts for the conver- 
sion of multitudes ; and at the same time giving the 
best assurance that the mission now partially esta- 
blished would be extended and carried forward by the 
Church. Often, in hours of depression, I had been 
ready to give way to discouragement, fearing that 
our efforts must be suspended, if not altogether aban- 
doned. The prospect now appeared far brighter. 




Messrs. Wilson and Newton reached Calcutta on 
the 25th of February, 1835, after a very favorable 
voyage of one hundred and ten days, in the ship 
Georgia, from Boston. Stopping at Calcutta until the 
25th of June, they then commenced their voyage up 
the Ganges in a pinnace, a larger boat than a budge- 
row, intending to proceed in tents after leaving the 
river at Futtehgurh, and expecting to reach Lodiana 
about the 1st of November. Miss Davis afterwards 
became connected in marriage with the Rev. Mr. 
Goadby, a worthy Baptist missionary from the pro- 
vince of Orissa, south of Bengal. 

In the meantime, following the doctor's advice, I 
had gone up to Simla to spend the hot and rainy sea- 
sons of the year. This is a station to which many 
Europeans resort for health, its elevation making the 
temperature pleasant even in the hottest days on the 
plains. The houses are built around the sides of 
what is called Mount Jakko, perhaps five hundred 
feet below the summit of the mountain, which is 
about eight thousand feet high. Many of the houses 
stand detached from each other, in the midst of the 
forest trees ; and they have a singularly wild " look 
out," as the descent below them is precipitous and 
deep, into the narrow valleys that lead off in different 
directions, and the sublime snowy ranges can be 
seen in the distance. The number of natives at 
Simla is not large ; in the winter it is almost desert- 
ed ; but during the six or seven months that Europe- 
ans spend there, many petty shopkeepers, of differ- 
ent kinds, bring their articles of traffic from the 



plains, and give to the Simla bazar rather a lively 
appearance. The whole native population never 
exceeds, probably, a few hundred. Of English peo- 
ple, during the summer of 1835, there were from 
one hundred and thirty to one hundred and fifty, 
including a number of ladies. This was a larger 
number, I was informed, than had visited the station 
in any previous season. 

Of the Europeans some were decidedly religious 
people, and I should suppose nearly all regarded 
religious institutions with respect. The attendance 
on our service on Sundays often amounted to eighty, 
which was considered a good number, as some were 
often absent on tours into the interior, and others 
were in poor health. It has seldom been my good 
fortune to meet with so many intelligent and agree- 
able people in so small a company ; and those with 
whom I was less acquainted, I am not disposed to 
think less interesting. Of the more religiously 
inclined visitors I cannot speak too highly. I 
admired the character of their religion, which I 
thought unaffected, teachable, and cordial, and at 
the same time well informed and cheerful. Of the 
ladies it becomes me to speak with due reserve, and 
yet thankfulness for their kindness must be my excuse 
for paying my willing tribute to their agreeable man- 
ners and their unaffected excellence. I thought 
them in manner, accomplishment, and intelligence, 
very similar to ladies of our best society at home. 
Many very pleasant and well-spent hours were 



enjoyed with these Christian friends. The remem- 
brance of them is still fresh, and must ever be sacred. 
And now widely separated from them, and they from 
each other, my fervent prayer is that we may here- 
after meet in a better world. 

During this summer I endeavored to obtain accu- 
rate information concerning the Hill States, making 
tours into the interior for this purpose, and consulting 
with English gentlemen who had lived in them a 
number of years. The following notes were made 
out shortly after leaving the Hills ; they present the 
result of the summer's inquiries and observations in 
regard to a peculiar region of India, and a simple 
minded and primitive people. 

The people, who inhabit the hilly region, which 
lies between the snowy Himalaya mountains and the 
Plains of India, are divided into numerous small 
states, under their own chiefs ; and, as they have 
been under the protection of the British power for 
several years, they are usually called " The Protected 
Hill States." 

1. As I have just stated, the snowy mountains and 
the level plains of upper India are the two chief 
boundaries of this region. Between them, and 
extending in a direction parallel to those mountains, 
that is, from North West to South East, these hill 
states are situated. The river Sutlej forms the 
dividing line between them and the similar regions 
belonging to RanjU Singh, the Ruler of Labor. In 



the opposite, or South Eastern direction, the west 
branch of the river Gogra separates them from the 
territories of Nepal. 

The length of this region is probably between one 
hundred and fifty and two hundred miles ; and the 
breadth may be stated at from fifty to seventy or 
eighty miles. Yet this estimate must be regarded as 
not very definite, since it is modified by the charac- 
ter of the country in particular places. The valley 
of Kanaur, for example, belongs to one of these 
states. It is almost entirely surrounded by the 
regions of snow, and extends towards Chinese Tar- 
tary probably one hundred and fifty miles from the 
nearest part of the Plains. 

2. The face of the country is extremely irregular 
and hilly, as the name of the chiefdoms implies. 
Yet the term hills can be used to describe these 
mountainous regions only for the convenience of 
having some word to distinguish them from the snowy 
regions, as the peaks and ridges of these lower moun- 
tains rise to an elevation of from two thousand to 
upwards of six thousand feet in height, and not a few 
are eight thousand, nine thousand, &c. In many 
parts of the world such elevations would be accounted 
lofty mountains ; and might be so considered here, 
were it not that the snowy regions are always seen 
towering up to such a height, that these mountains 
seem but hills in comparison with them. These 
mountains resemble a large number of high, irregular 
peaks and ridges jumbled together in every kind of 
confusion, or at any rate, of variety. But frequently, 



one peak, or short ridge, may be seen rising consi- 
derably higher than its neighbors ; and often, an irre- 
gular ridge may be traced for several miles, leading, 
in many instances, from one of these high peaks to 
others. Thus Jakko, the mountain around the sides 
of which the Station of Simla is built, is about eight 
thousand feet high ; and from Jakko a lofty but crookM 
ridge runs ten or twelve miles eastward to Mahassu, 
a mountain nearly nine thousand feet high. In no 
part of these regions do the mountains run in regu- 
lar ranges, with level valleys intervening, like our 
Alleghany Mountains. Indeed between the peaks 
or the ridges there is seldom any level ground at all ; 
but their sides decline at varying inclinations from 
the top to the bottom. The sides are frequently 
quite abrupt or precipitous, and commonly very 
irregular. At the bottom, or foot of the mountain, 
in the Kud, as it is called, a water channel usually 
forms the boundary between one mountain and its 
adjoining neighbor. The northern sides of these 
mountains are sometimes covered with dense pine 
forests ; but the southern and south-eastern sides are 
commonly destitute of trees, and present a barren 
and cheerless aspect, possessing little interest, except 
where the people have been able to cultivate them. 
It may be owing to the effects of the rains during 
the rainy season, which beat with great violence on 
the south-east sides of the mountains, that there is so 
marked a difference between their different sides. 

The great defect in the scenery of these moun- 
tains is the want of water. There are but few 



rivers ; and these are commonly very small, except 
during the rains, when every valley has its foaming 
torrent. At other seasons of the year, a person may 
travel " up and down hill" all the day without seeing 
a brook, or even a spring ; unless he ascends some 
of the highest peaks, or descends quite to the bottom 
of some of the valleys. 

3. The snowy mountains, in clear weather, are 
seen with distinct view from nearly all the higher 
parts of the Protected Hill States. They may also 
be seen very distinctly from many places in the 
Plains of Upper India, when the atmosphere is clear, 
and especially after there has been rain. There is 
a remarkably fine distant view of them from Lodi- 
ana, although that city cannot be less than from one 
hundred to one hundred and fifty miles distant from 
the mountains. From Simla the nearer ranges of 
snow-covered mountains are not distant in a direct 
line more than thirty or forty miles. 

The view of these mountains, as seen from seve- 
ral places in these Hill States, is extremely grand. 
I have looked at them for hours from the summit of 
Hatu, and also of Kupar, the former ten thousand 
six hundred feet high, the latter eleven thousand feet. 
These mountains, themselves covered with snow 
during several months of the year, are not distant 
probably more than fifteen or twenty miles from the 
regions of perpetual snow ; so that, in a clear day, 
the view is perfectly well-defined, and beyond de- 
scription imposing. The peaks and ridges, viewed 
from this side, seem to have nearly all of them a 



slight inclination to the north-east. They appear 
much less varied in form than one may suppose they 
would appear if deprived of their snowy covering. 
The snow, no doubt, conceals many an irregular 
projection, and many a frightful chasm, and gives an 
air of uniformity to the outline of the whole. The 
valleys are generally much filled with snow, which 
sometimes rises almost to the summits of the ridges, 
and must be of immense depth. In so near a view, 
the snow which fills the valleys can often be distin- 
guished from that which rests on the ridges and 
peaks, by its inclination, and by its more settled or 
dense appearance. But most of the peaks and 
ridges are themselves quite covered with snow. 
They are very irregular ; some are formed into long 
ranges; others shoot up in separate elevations of 
almost every shape, looking sometimes like immense 
battlements and towers, and sometimes like lofty 
piles of vast dilapidated buildings. At a distant 
view in the afternoon, they look not unlike great 
masses or embankments of white clouds, brilliantly 
reflecting the rays of the sun. Sometimes a dark, 
rugged peak projects above the snow, being probably 
too vertical to admit of the snow's resting upon it, 
and affords a striking contrast to the pure and peace- 
ful appearance of the snow around it. The differ- 
ence of their appearance before and after the rains 
is considerable, as much of the snow becomes melted, 
leaving the summits, especially of the nearer and 
lower ranges, more naked and dark. The heights 
of a number of the most elevated peaks have been 



carefully ascertained. Not less than seven are 
upwards of twenty-two thousand feet high ; one of 
which, Dewalag'iri, is about twenty-seven thousand 
feet, and three others about twenty-five thousand 
feet. These loftiest parts of our globe, though dis- 
tinctly higher than other parts of the Himalaya 
ranges, are yet not very prominently so. 

The snowy mountains may sometimes be traced 
at one view from the north-west towards the south- 
east for probably two hundred miles. There is some- 
thing adapted to awaken deeply serious feelings in 
one's mind, to look at peak after peak stretching 
away in the distance, and then to invest each suc- 
cessive elevation with the well defined but cold 
majesty which seems to repose on the nearer moun- 
tains. These snow-covered mountains awaken feel- 
ings quite diflferent from any I have ever been con- 
scious of when looking at other mountains. These 
seem too pure for earth ; too unchanging for time. 
A person is ready to look on them as if they were 
regions commencing another world. They are cer- 
tainly adapted to elevate the thoughts and feelings 
to a higher world. They bear their solemn testimony 
to God's unchanging greatness, with a force that 
mere words could never impress on the mind. The 
Christian's mind is rendered deeply reverential. It 
is filled with thoughts and feelings like those of the 
Psalmist when surveying the heavens : Lord, what 
is man that thbu art mindful of him !" 

Considering the blinding influence of our depraved 
nature on the mental perceptions, it is scarcely won- 




derful that the poor Hindu should, in all ages, have 
raised to these snow-covered mountains " an eye of 
religious veneration." "In the Hindu Pantheon, 
Himalaya is deified, and described as the father of 
the Ganges and her sister Ooma ; the latter being 
the spouse of Mahadeva, or Siva, the destroying 
power." But we may hope, as well as pray, that the 
glorious light of the Gospel shall soon spread over 
India. Then the Hindu shall raise his eye to those 
lofty summits only to aid his mind in elevating its 
thoughts to the throne of the great Creator, there to 
render the homage of humility and of praise. 

4. There are few Rivers of any note in the Pro- 
tected Hill regions ; though both the Ganges and the 
Jumna take their rise in them. The Sutlej runs 
nearly one hundred miles of its course in the country 
protected by the British, and then forms the bound- 
ary, as already mentioned, separating that country 
from Ranjit Singh's possessions. It is not at all 
navigable in the Hills. During the greater part of 
its course among the mountains, the descent of the 
water is very great, and the current is extremely 
rapid and tumultuous. There are several small 
streams, sometimes called rivers, of which I have 
seen only one deserving of notice — 'the Giri. At 
probably twenty miles' distance from its source, and 
thence fifty or sixty miles to its junction with the 
Jumna, it is about twenty yards wide, with an 
average depth of two feet ; having a current of from 
four to six miles an hour. Its water is remarkably 
clear, and runs over a rocky or pebbly bed, some- 



times descending considerable declivities with great 
noise. A few fish are found in this river. Com- 
monly, the streams of water in these hills are quite 
destitute of fish» 

5. Among the Trees and Productions of these 
regions, the pine is the most common ; of which 
there are five or six species. The larch and the 
cedar are most frequently met with. The former 
resembles our American white pine ; and the latter, 
the species which in some places is called " spruce 
pine." One variety of the pine in the interior bears 
a small, oblong, and rich fruit, of which most persons 
are quite fond. It is called the pneoxa pine. There 
is a species of oak, but it is small in size. On the 
sides of the higher mountains the maple, birch, horse- 
chestnut, &c., are seen. The Rhododendron is 
everywhere common. It grows to the height of the 
locust or sassafras trees of America, and presents 
a beautiful appearance in the months of March 
and April, when covered over with its large and 
gorgeous scarlet flowers. The apricot is common, 
and bears an excellent fruit. Peaches do not come 
to maturity, in consequence of the rains. The 
apples are tolerable, though found only in one or two 
of the valleys. They would become very good, one 
may suppose, if proper care were employed in 
grafting. Black currants are abundant in some 
parts. In Kanaur, one of the valleys, there are 
several varieties of the grape, which form a good 
part of the subsistence of the inhabitants, being dried 
for that purpose They are not made into wine ; 


Notes on thij 

though sometimes a strong and very i^jtoxicating 
liquor is manufactured from them. Walnut trees 
and wild pears are often seen. Plantains, oranges, 
mangoes, &c., are found in the valleys near the 

No precious Metals, lead, coal, nor salt, have yet 
been discovered. In a few places iron ore is found. 
The natives have very small and simple furnaces, in 
which they make an inferior kind of iron. The most 
common rock is the mica slate. On the highest 
elevations gneiss is the usual species. Quartz is 
often seen with both the mica and the gneiss. 
Granite is rarely met with. Other varieties are 
sometimes found. 

The Soil seems to be very poor, except near the 
bottom of the valleys, and in the forests on the sides 
of the mountains. In the former it is enriched by 
the deposits brought down from the higher ground 
by the rains. The decay of vegetable matter accounts 
for the fertility of the ground where there are forests. 

The farmers cultivate various kinds of grain \ 
among which are wheat, maize, buckwheat, barley, 
and several kinds of native grain. Among the latter 
the Batu makes a very beautiful appearance in the 
fields, when almost ripe. It is a plume-like stalky 
containing a great many seeds resembling timothy 
seed ; which are ground into flour by the natives, 
the red covering or husks serving as food for the 
cattle. Some rice is cultivated in the valleys. Pota- 
toes have been introduced by the English, and grow 
very well. The poppy is cultivated in order to make 



opium ; of which considerable quantities are manu- 
factured. Some tobacco is grown, and occasionally 
patches of cotton may be seen. Large pumpkins, 
cucumbers, onions, peas, &c,, are to be had ; but the 
latter, with carrots, beans, and strawberries, are sel- 
dom cultivated by the natives. 

6. Among the wild animals is a species of leopard- 
Jackals are common. Foxes are sometimes seen ; 
monkeys more frequently. There are a few snakes, 
which are seldom seen, however, except during the 
rains. Lizards, toads, and frogs, seem to be much 
pleased with this climate, if a person may judge by 
their numbers. Among the birds, crows, hawks, 
and kites, are always seen in large numbers in the 
vicinity of towns and villages, though they are not 
so very numerous as in other parts of India. The 
golden eagle may be often observed proudly sailing 
over the valleys, and above the highest mountain 
summits. They sometimes measure ten feet from 
tip to tip of the wings. The cuckoo, swallow, spar- 
row, jay, and a variety of other small birds, are com- 
mon during certain months of the year. None are 
at all remarkable for sweetness of note ; though some 
of them have beautiful plumage. The house-fly, 
and his enemy the spider, fleas, and some other not 
more agreeable insects, are too common for a person's 
comfort sometimes. The bee is quite common, and 
honey is good, plenty, and cheap. 

The farmers commonly have one or two buffaloes ; 
or, if not, small cows instead. The cow is quite a 
sacred animal. At one place, the natives refused to 



milk them into our vessels ; though it seems difficult 
to imagine how the hoHness of cows could be con- 
taminated by doing so. There are no horses, except 
such as belong to the Ranas, or chiefs. Ploughing 
is always done by bullocks or cows. Mules are 
sometimes used for the transportation of merchan- 
dise. Sheep and goats seem to thrive welL The 
former all have short horns, both male and female. 
Fowls might be kept with the greatest ease, but for 
the religious prejudices of the natives. 

7. As to the climate the degree of heat or of cold 
depends chiefly on the elevation. In the narrow 
precipitous valleys it is intolerably hot during the 
summer. At Simla, seven thousand five hundred 
feet high, the thermometer, in the house, rose to 80^ 
and 82° last May ; but fell to 64° and 66° during 
the rains. In the latter end of October there were 
hard frosts on the ground in the mornings. In the 
winter there are frequent falls of snow at Simla) 
which, however, is soon melted. 

The rains commence early in June, and continue 
until the middle or latter end of September. They 
are extremely heavy ; and are attended sometimes 
with lightning and thunder, especially about their 
commencement and termination. The worst fea- 
ture of the rainy season is the dense fog or mist, 
which prevails very much for two months. These 
fogs I have not seen in the Plains. They are very 
dense. Indeed they seem to be literally clouds, 
heavily charged with moisture, and often so dense 
that objects of the largest size cannot be at all seen 



at the distance of half a dozen yards. They often 
rise suddenly, and from no conceivable cause of a 
local nature ; and continue sometimes for a few hours ; 
at others, for days, if not for weeks. They seldom 
settle low^er down than six thousand feet above the 
level of the sea. At high elevations they remain 
during all the rains. They are very oppressive to 
persons of weak lungs, or who are troubled with 
difficulty of breaching. 

With the exception of the sun's rays, and of the 
fogs for six weeks or two months on the higher Hillsj 
this climate is considered very much better than 
that of the Plains for persons coming from colder 
latitudes. There is something refreshing and brac- 
ing in the pure mountain air. A person feels here 
some of the elasticity of mind which he enjoyed in 
his own country. He rises in the morning refreshed 
by his sleep, and not languid, feverish, and spiritless, 
as during the hot season in the Plains. I believe 
the climate of these hills is considered favorable to 
persons whose system has become enfeebled by the 
heat of the plains ; to those who are recovering from 
fevers ; to persons subject to derangement of the 
functions of the liver, in cases not constitutional and 
inveterate. It is probably favorable to most kinds 
of disease in India. The higher elevations, however, 
where the fogs prevail, can hardly be salutary to 
persons subject to rheumatic affections, or laboring 
under pulmonary complaints. 

There are three or four places on the Hills to 
which English invalids resort for their health, and 
where medical men are commonly to be met with 



among the other residents, at least during the 
hot months. Of these Simla and Mussooree are the 
two chief places of resort ; the latter station being 
in the Hills north of Meerut. At each of these sta- 
tions from one hundred to one hundred and filty 
persons reside for several months during the summer. 
But few remain during the cold season. It is deemed 
strange by some, that the stations for invalid soldiers 
are not established somewhere in this region. The 
climate would certainly be more pleasant and salu- 
tary for them than that of the plains. There is at 
Mussooree a school for English children, where 
many branches of a respectable education are taught, 
under the superintendence of a European teacher 
and his sister. It is well spoken of, and affords 
advantages not ordinarily met with in India, to the 
families who prefer a residence at that station, when 
they are obliged to go to the Hills. Sabathu, on the 
route to Simla, is the station where one of the Poli- 
tical Agents in these Hill States, and where also a 
medical officer permanently reside. It is only four 
thousand feet high, and is not much resorted to by 
invalids. Sabathu is one march (fifteen miles) from 
the plains, and two marches from Simla. 

8. The entire population in these regions under 
British protection, is estimated at two hundred and 
fifty thousand persons. There are few towns of any 
size. Sabathu is one of the largest in the Hills, and 
yet, including the vicinity of eight or ten miles, it 
does not contain more than twelve thousand people. 
Rampur, on the Sutlej, contains about one thousand 



inhabitants. It is the place where the chief mela, or 
fair, in the Hills, is held. On that occasion, several 
days are devoted to buying and selling, to religious 
duties, &c. It is commonly held in the month of 
October or November, and is resorted to by some 
thousands of natives from all parts of the Hill 

Usually, the Hill people dwell in small villages 
and hamlets of from half a dozen houses to twenty 
or thirty. In a single valley, or rather on the sides 
of the two mountains which form the valley, nume- 
rous clusters of houses may be seen, generally sub- 
ject to the same chief, and all accessible without 
much difficulty, after a person has succeeded in 
reaching one of them. I have counted between 
twenty-five and thirty of these small villages at one 
view, thus situated on the sides of the neighboring 
mountains ; and a missionary might visit all on one 
of the sides in the course of a few days, spending 
several hours at each, to make known the Gospel, 
and pitching his tent at night at a few miles' distance 
from his camp in the morning. The valley of Jubal 
is said to contain not less than fourteen thousand 
people, dwelling thus in villages, the greater part of 
which are visible at one view from some high peaks 
in the vicinity. All of these villages might probably 
be visited by a missionary in a fortnight or three 
weeks. If a person could speak the language with 
freedom, and possessed the patient, devoted spirit of 
NefF, he could not desire a finer field for doing good 
both to the bodies and souls of his fellow men. 



The population of these States must be regarded 
as very great, when the character of their country- 
is considered. Probably not more than one third of 
the actual surface of these regions admits of being 
cultivated. The proportion may be larger on the 
lower Hills ; but it is much smaller on the higher. 

9. The Hill people are nearly all employed in 
cultivating the soil. As there is scarcely any level 
ground, they are compelled to form the surface of 
the Hills into irregular terraces. These are usually 
very small, seldom more than a few rods broad, often 
only a few feet ; their length is very various. They 
are supported by low walls of stones, piled up without 
any mortar or cement. It is no uncommon thing 
among the lower Hills near the plains, to see terraces 
of this kind reaching from the bottom to the top. 
Often, on the higher Hills, these rude terraces extend 
as far up as the nature of the soil, or the coldness of 
the chmate, admits of cultivation. Rice and other 
productions of warm climates, may be seen at the 
bottom, while some of the hardier kinds of grain are 
growing at the top. These little fields on the moun- 
tain sides look very beautiful in the spring months. 

The implements of agriculture in common use are 
simple and rude ; but the plough is better than the 
one used in the plains, and the harrow is not worse. 
The houses of these people are comfortable for Hin- 
dus. They are much more substantial than those 
of farmers in the plains, being usually built chiefly of 
small-sized stones, with timbers, six or eight inches 
square, placed along in the walls at distances of 



two or three feet apart. In the interior of the Hills, 
the houses are commonly two stories in height, the 
upper story having a porch, partly inclosed, along 
the entire front side, from which a door opens into 
the apartments of the family. The lower story is 
merely a stable for their buffaloes or cows. The 
roof is composed of flat stones, sometimes of slates, 
and projects so far on the front side as to afford a 
cover to the veranda or porch. It is seldom that 
these houses have any windows. Chimneys seem to 
be unknown throughout India, in native houses, the 
fire being kindled and kept in little clay fire-places, 
and the smoke being allowed to make its escape as 
best it can. Some of the richer farmers among the 
Hill people have houses so large and well-built that 
they would be quite respectable even in America, 
having verandas on all sides, and being constructed 
of stones and timbers which have been carefully 
hewed and prepared. A good Pahari house for the 
ordinary class of inhabitants will cost about one 
hundred rupees. In the plains, the corresponding 
class of people live in houses of clay, which cost 
twenty or thirty rupees — ten or fifteen dollars. 

10. The Temples, or places of religious character, 
are of different sizes and appearance. Most com- 
monly they are of one rather low story in height, 
constructed of the same materials as ordinary houses, 
but having their roofs modelled more like the Chinese 
roofs, or of a slightly concave form from the cone to 
the eaves. Often these temples are made entirely of 
wood. Sometimes a part of the building is of open 



structure, showing at one view all the idols and their 
ornaments. In other instances, there is no opening 
of any kind, except one small door. Some of the 
temples are more lofty than these, and have a veranda 
on all sides, at about two thirds of their height, which, 
as it is often inclosed, gives them a singular appear- 
ance. Some few consist of little more than a plat- 
form of stone, and four posts, or rude pillars, which 
support the roof. Some have a kind of low circular 
tower, rising above one end. 

Their sites are often worthy of attention. Some 
are seen at a great distance, on the top of a moun- 
tain peak, or at the extremity of some ridge, standing 
solitary. Others break suddenly on the view of a 
traveller, as he passes through the forest, standing in 
its most dense recesses, and surrounded and over- 
shadowed by lofty trees. Near the villages, they 
stand generally alone, a space being reserved between 
them and the dwellings of the people. They all seem 
adapted to exert a cheerless influence on the minds 
of men, an influence quite in accordance with the 
spirit of the Hindu system. Yet it must be acknow- 
ledged that their situation and appearance are not 
destitute of impressiveness. The idols in these tem- 
ples are rude sculptures of wood and stone, and are 
most commonly devoted to the goddess Kali, though 
the trident of Siva is sometimes seen over their 
most holy place. To the former goats are frequently 
sacrificed. Formerly, it appears from uncontradicted 
testimony, human victims were offered at her bloody 
shrine. There is a mountain very distinctly seen 



from Simla, called Shall, on whose summits in for- 
mer days there was a famous temple to this goddess. 
It is commonly believed that human beings were 
killed for sacrifices at that temple ; but no instance 
has occurred since 1809. Since these regions have 
come under English control, this practice, and that 
of infanticide, in a great degree, have been abolished. 
One cannot but wonder that it should ever have 
existed among a people so mild, and apparently kind- 
hearted as these Paharis are. But the depraved 
heart of man, when unchanged and unrestrained 
by Divine influence, is susceptible of entertaining 
and of perpetrating any evil, however heinous in 
itself, or however horrible in its consequences. 

At some temples, incense is offered in a rude 
earthen censer. In ascending a mountain one morn- 
ing, with a Christian friend, we were much struck at 
seeing this ceremony performed. The person offi- 
ciating was kneeling a short distance from the idol. 
In one hand he held a censer, with the incense burn- 
ing, which he waved backwards and forwards, while 
with the other he was ringing a little bell. I never 
saw an instance of the kind before ; and my com- 
panion said it was equally new to him, although he 
had been fourteen years in various parts of India. • - 

It is very common, in the immediate vicinity of 
these hill temples, to see a great number of rags 
sticking on the bushes and low trees around. They 
are of every color and texture, and are usually in 
the shape of narrow and rather long strips. They 
seem to have been torn off from the clothes commonly 



worn by the people, and are said to be intended as 
pledges by worshippers, that they will fulfil their 
vows. This custom seems to be quite peculiar to 
these hills ; at least I have not heard of any similar 
usage elsewhere. 

11. The Religion of these people, as may be 
inferred from what has been said about their temples, 
is exclusively the Hindu. There are no Mussul- 
mans, and scarcely any Sikhs among them. They 
seem to be chiefly of one caste of Hindus ; or per- 
haps it would be more ^ correct to say, that they do 
not pay much regard to the distinction of caste ; so 
that a person does not see, as in the plains, half a 
dozen fire-places to ^cook the dinners of half a 
dozen people. There are but few brahmans among 
them, nearly all the people belonging to the class 
whose sole duty, according to Hindu notions, is to 
cultivate the soil. 

12. The Language seems to be principally Hindui. 
Of the very few that I met who could read, all read 
the Hindui in the Devnagari character. An English 
gentleman who is an excellent Hindustani scholar, 
informed me, that he could scarcely make himself 
understood by the Paharis, while a friend of his, who 
is well acquainted with the Hindui, got along much 
better in his intercourse with them. Yet their mode 
of pronunciation is so very singular, that few Euro- 
peans can understand them. There are but few 
books of any description among them ; and probably 
not one in every thousand is able to read and write. 
No school of any sort is found among them ; except- 



ing one or two established and entirely supported by- 
English people. There are generally a few persons, 
however, in each small state, who are able to read, 
and to keep the few records in writing that the 
administration of their affairs requires to be thus 
preserved. I have been told that there are three or 
four different alphabets used in different places. 

13. In the manners of the Hill people there is a frank 
and independent bearing, which is much more pleas- 
ing than the sycophancy and servility towards supe- 
riors so common throughout India. They seem to 
be very ingenuous. They might be characterized 
as a simple-minded people, who are little encumbered 
with artificial distinctions of wealth and rank. Their 
chiefs have commonly but little power ; their sub- 
jects, territories, and resources being all, for the 
most part, very limited. Hence, there is among 
them the absence both of the polish of address, and 
of the specious but deceitful ingenuity of mind, 
which are found among the subjects of more powerful 
and wealthy native rulers. This absence of artifi- 
cial usages may be partly owing, also, to the fact, 
that there are few persons among them of overgrown 
wealth. On the other hand, there are but few 
among these Paharis who are absolutely poor, or 
compelled to beg for their subsistence, the people 
being commonly in moderate but comfortable cir- 
cumstances. In their personal habits and dress they 
are ofTensively dirty. When an article of clothing 
is put on, it seems to be allowed to stay on until it 
wears off. The girls are betrothed at an early age. 



and their hair, it is said, is then plaited, and remains 
undressed (it is further added) ever afterwards. 

As to morals, they evince a much greater regard 
for truth and uprightness in dealing, than is shown 
by the people of the Plains. Much greater con- 
fidence can be reposed in their word, and in their 
honesty. But they are spoken of as greatly addicted 
to licentiousness; though the female sex does not 
appear to be so degraded as in the Plains. They 
are not so much secluded, which is some proof of 
their being held in higher estimation and of their 
enjoying greater respect. In one or two sections of 
the Hills, it is said that polyandry is common. A 
Christian friend informed me, that he had seen one 
family, where there were only two women. One 
was the aged mother, the other was the wife of ten 

In their disposition or temper there seems to be a 
great deal of kindness of feeling, prompting them to 
take an interest in the sufferings of others, and to 
render assistance to those who are in want. These 
Hill people seem to be patient, contented, easily 
satisfied, and greatly attached, as all mountain tribes 
are, to their own country. A missionary who would 
go among them in a kind and quiet manner, 
endeavor to promote their temporal comfort, as 
well as their spiritual welfare, and exemplify before 
them the peaceful and pure spirit of the gospel, 
might hope, if favored with the Divine blessing, to 
secure their warm affection for himself personally, 
and to see many of them embracing the gospel of 



the grace of God. His success would be greater and 
more immediate, probably, than he could meet with 
elsewhere in India, There are no difficulties or 
obstacles to hinder immediate Christian effort for the 
conversion of this people, except such difficulties £is 
will continue until the gospel itself removes them by- 
its holy influence. Under the existing authorities of 
the country, and among so peaceful a people, every 
judicious and prudent missionary would enjoy pro- 
tection ; while the climate and its inconveniences 
will ever remain, of course, in a great degree 
unchanged. It has been already remarked that the 
climate and the country are undoubtedly more favor- 
able to the health of Europeans and Americans than 
the greater part of India and of south-eastern Asia. 

The first establishment of a mission family might 
be made at Sabathu, which is convenient to the 
Plains, has the advantage of a resident medical offi- 
cer, and of post office communications, &c. At that 
place a comfortable house could be either purchased 
or rented, at a low rate. It would admit of conve- 
nient intercourse with the mission station at Lodiana, 
from which the^ books and tracts requisite for the 
prosecution of missionary labors might be easily 
obtained ; and it would afford a comfortable retreat 
for the missionaries from the Plains, when their 
health might become impaired. The distance be- 
tween Lodiana and Sabathu is about one hundred 

In regard to the mountainous and isolated valley 



of Kanaur, referred to in the first paragraph, of the 
foregoing notes, the following memoranda will be 
considered valuable by the reader ; they were taken 
from a work, then printed but not published, which 
has been lately reprinted and published in London. 
Captain Gerard, from whose book these notices were 
compiled by permission, had made several tours to 
the valley, and had spent some time in it. 

Kunaur (Koonawur), a part of the protected Hill 
states, lies on both sides of the Sutlej river, from 
Lat. -31° 15' to 32° 4', and from Long. 77° 50' to 
78° 50'. It runs from north-east to south-west, the 
habitable part seldom exceeding eight miles in 
breadth. It is secluded, rugged, mountainous, and 
almost entirely surrounded by mountains covered 
with snow. On the east it is separated from Chinese 
Tartary by a lofty ridge, through which are several 
passes at high elevations. 

Population, — There are seven large divisions, sub- 
divided into twenty smaller, containing altogether 
rather less than ten thousand inhabitants. Rampur, 
the chief town of Basehar, the state or chiefdom of 
which Kunaur forms a part, contains one hundred 
and ten families. In Kunaur, Marang contains 
eighty-seven families, and Ridang, seventy-five. 
These are among the most populous places in Basehar. 
The villages are situated from seven to twelve thou- 
sand feet above the sea. 

Climate. — This depends upon the elevation and 
the location of the particular place. Rampur is 
so hot, during a good part of the year, as to be 



almost uninhabitable by Europeans. Other places 
are so cold, as to be uninhabitable by any human 
beings. Between these extremes there is a great 
variety of temperature. 

Valleys.— The valleys of the Sutlej, of the Baspa, 
of the Pabar, and of one or two other small streams, 
are the only parts which admit of much cultivation. 
Arable spaces occasionally are met, varying from one 
hundred yards to half a mile in width. 

Rivers. — The Sutlej is more like a torrent than 
a large river, descending sometimes one hundred or 
one hundred and fifty feet per mile. The water looks 
turbid, from the particles of sand, or of the rocks, 
worn off by attrition, which are held suspended in 
the stream. It runs two hundred and eighty miles 
in the snowy mountains, one hundred more in the 
hills, or lower range of mountains, and one hundred 
and thirty more in the plains, to its junction with 
the Bias. Its breadth varies greatly ; its depth in 
the hills can seldom be ascertained, owing to the 
rapidity of the current, which is often fearfully great. 

The Sutlej receives several mountain streams as 
tributaries, of which the chief is the Spiti, which is 
nearly one hundred miles in length. The others 
vary in length from ten to forty-five miles. They 
are all much swollen by the rains, and by the melt- 
ing of the snow. These rivers and steams are pass- 
ed by sangos, or wooden bridges, hy j hulas, or rope 
bridges, and by sagams, or twig bridges. The second 
is made of several cables stretched from bank to 
bank, from which a noose is suspended ; in this the 



passenger places himself, and he is then drawn over 
by cords attached to the noose. The third kind of 
bridge is formed of twigs twisted, ropes, &c. 

Passes. — There are various passes, over which 
travellers cross the mountains. Of these, six lead 
to Chinese Tartary, and several into Thibet. 

Productions, &c. — Barley, buckwheat, and wheat 
are common. The potatoe has been introduced, and 
grows well. Among the trees are six kinds of pine, 
oak, birch, maple. Wild fruits are abundant, as 
black and red currants, gooseberries, strawberries, 
neoza,* pears, apricots, &;c. Many varieties of 
grapes flourish very well in good situations. Eight- 
een kinds are mentioned, which seems an incredibly 
large number. They sell at sixty or seventy pounds 
to the rupee. Apples are but indifferent — could they 
not be improved by grafting ? Peaches do not ripen 

The animals are cows, sheep, goats, asses, small 
horses, dogs, &c. There are a few wild bears, and 
a species of tiger-cat, or panther. Among the 
birds are pheasants, hawks, eagles, crows, pigeons, 
&c. Fish are not abundant. There are snakes, 
frogs, flies, fleas, &c. The common bee is every- 
where met with, and there is plenty of fine honey, 
particularly in the autumn. 

The people are dark complexioned and muscular. 
Their stature is from five feet four inches to five feet 

* The neoza is a small, rather long, partly conical fruit, tasting not 
unlike the filbert or hazel nut, and produced by a species of the pine. 



nine. They are frank, active, hospitable, and highly 
honorable, reverencing the truth, &c. 

Their religion is Hinduism, but with less regard 
for the subdivisions of caste than the people of the 
plains evince. They erect temples to the Devtas, 
or gods, in their villages, and piles of stones on the 
summits of the hills. Kali is chiefly v^orshipped. 
Human sacrifices were offered before the British 
became rulers ; and female infanticide was common. 
Their language is a dialect of the Hindui. Few 
persons can read or write. The dialect called Mil- 
chan is said to be the most common. 

Diseases are few, as the climate is salubrious and 
bracing. As there are no periodical rains in Kunaur, 
there are few vapors or mists. The swelled throat, 
or goitre, is frequently met with ; but it is not sup- 
posed to be owing to their drinking snow water, 
because many who drink nothing else for months are 
not troubled Avith it. 





Meeting with Messrs. Wilson and Newton — English school at Lodi- 
ana — Mission station at Sabathu — Other fields of labor — Station at 
Lodiana — Leave Lodiana — Meeting at Calcutta with the third 
company of Missionaries — Reach New York. 

Leaving Simla about the 17th of November, I 
proceeded to join my missionary friends, the Wilsons 
and Newtons, now on the land part of their journey 
to Lodiana, and on the 23d of that month we had 
the high gratification of meeting at a small native 
village about thirty miles north-west of Delhi. Years 
had passed since we were students together at the 
Alleghany Seminary, and in this period changes of 
the deepest interest had taken place ; the broad ocean 
had been crossed, the hand of death had taken away 
more than one whom we all loved, and who had 
expected to be present at this meeting ; and we were 
now truly strangers in a strange country. How 
thankful and joyful that we were again together ! 
With the warmest gratitude did we at once unite in 
offering fervent praise to God, " for all the way by 
which he had led us along." Our meeting was a 
time of the most tender and refreshing communion, 
such as language can but feebly describe. 



After reaching Lodiana, we had the satisfaction 
of spending about six w^eeks together. During this 
time the history of our nnission in all its details was 
brought under review, and its prospects carefully 
examined. Various plans of usefulness were con- 
sidered, and our united and fervent prayers were 
often made that the blessing of the great Head of 
the Church might attend our feeble undertakings. 
On a review of all our affairs, we could not but 
thank God, and take courage." I may here insert 
some extracts from a letter, written a month or two 
afterwards, but referring to the state of things in 
January, 1836. 

" The English school was first established under 
the auspices and generous support of Captain C. M. 
Wade, the Political Agent at Lodiana ; and, for 
some months before I reached that place in Novem- 
ber, 1834, it was taught by Shahamat Ali, a young 
man of considerable promise, who had acquired 
some knowledge of our language at the government 
college, or school, at Delhi. 

" One of the first subjects that required our con- 
sideration after we arrived at Lodiana was that of 
our connexion with this school. Captain Wade was 
its founder, and it has always been chiefly owing to 
his deep interest in its success, and to his generous 
patronage, that it has thus far prospered so well. 
He wished, however, to sustain towards it a some- 
what diflferent, though not less friendly relationship. 
And between his making an arrangement that would 
have placed it out of our hands, and making it over 



entirely to us, we, of course, could not feel as indif- 
ferent spectators ; especially as the other arrange- 
ment would have involved the giving up of ail reli- 
gious books and instructions in the school. After 
free and repeated conversations with Captain Wade 
on the subject, marked on his part by a most kind, con- 
siderate, and liberal disposition, it seemed best that the 
school should be altogether made over to our mission. 
Captain Wade will, however, continue to mani- 
fest an entirely cordial interest in its welfare, and is 
still the patron of the school. It now contains about 
forty-five boys and young men. This number is as 
large as could be expected, when it is considered 
that but few, if any, of the natives of this country 
are yet influenced by a desire of knowledge from 
disinterested motives ; and that the number of situa- 
tions is but limited in which a knowledge of our lan- 
guage would be advantageous in a pecuniary point 
of view. Indeed, it may be said of most places 
remote from Calcutta, that the most weighty motive 
to the mind of a Hindu for seeking a knowledge of 
our language is the hope of pleasing his European 
superiors, and of deriving some sort of advantage 
from their favor. This is a good deal the case at 
Lodiana ; though I am glad to think that some of the 
boys are influenced by higher and better motives. 
But, whatever may be the character of the motives 
which influence any of the natives in their efforts to 
become acquainted with our language, it matters 
little to us as to our duty. To us it is simply a 
question between endeavoring to avail ourselves of 



their wish to know our language by consenting to 
teach them, and watching opportunities to make 
them acquainted with useful and Christian know- 
ledge, and neglecting to do so. If we choose the 
latter plan, we lose many and precious opportunities, 
direct and indirect, of exerting a useful influence, of 
communicating important knowledge, of correcting 
evil habits, of witnessing a Christian example ; and 
we permit a most interesting class of the community 
to acquire that knowledge of our language which 
will make them by far the most influential men of 
their generation, without any, or with but an imperfect 
acquaintance v/ith the truths of our religion. The 
desire to know our language is awakened in their 
minds ; it will be gratified ; those who learn our 
books will be looked up to by all the people ; they 
will occupy many places of important influence 
among their countrymen ; but whether they will 
exert an influence favorable to Christianity, or not, 
is a diflferent and most important matter. Mere ge- 
nera] knowledge wall never make them sincere Chris- 
tians; though it may, and most probably will make 
them infidels as to the religious systems of their 
fathers. We have yet to learn whether infidelity in 
India is any better than infidelity in America or 

* This English school has not ceased to be an object of prominent 
interest. A new and more ehgible building has been erected for its 
use ; the number of pupils has been doubled. Though subject to con- 
siderable changes, partly from the parents' early withdrawing their 
SODS to occupy stations of business, thereby greatly hindering the use- 



" Another subject that has received a good many 
of our thoughts, is the distribution of our number ; 
having a reference as well to those who are to come 
as to those now here. Lodiana seems to need the 
services of two missionaries, one printer, and one 
schoolmaster. Ambala, about seventy miles to the 
south-east, is as large a town, or perhaps larger ; 
but, at present, it does not appear to be advisable to 
attempt forming a branch of our mission there. 
Ferozpur, about seventy miles down the Sutlej from 
Lodiana, is a place of ten or twelve thousand inha- 
bitants, and of great prospective inportance. It is 
not quite prepared, probably, for becoming the sta* 
tion of a mission family. SabathUj one hundred 
miles from Lodiana, in the Protected Hill States, is 
a very good place at which to have one missionary 
and one schoolmaster stationed. These are the 
places now under direct British control. There are 
many large towns belonging to native Chiefs, on 
both sides of the Sutlej, within one hundred miles, 
and many within fifty miles of Lodiana. Within 
the latter distance is Patiala, said to contain sixty or 
seventy thousand inhabitants, southward from Lodi- 
ana ; Sirhind, containing probably fifteen thousand, 
eastward, or south-eastward, from Lodiana, on the 
road to Ambala ; Jalandar, forty thousand, thirty 

fulness of the school ; yet it cannot be doubted that a good influence 
has been already exerted through its agency. Its position in reference 
to surrounding countries, and the different languages spoken by its 
pupils, will make this school the means, with the blessing of God, of 
diffusing far and near the knowledge of the way of life. 



'miles ; and Paghvvarah, fifteen thousand, twenty 
nniles. Both of these are on the other side of the 
Sutlej, on the road to Amritsir and Lahor. Besides 
these large towns, there are a good many of some 
thousands, and a great many of some hundreds of 
inhabitants. But in regard to towns which are 
entirely under native rule, it may be regarded in ge- 
neral as scarcely advisable for a mission family to 
settle at them., before a knowledge of the language is 
attained ; and perhaps even then it will be better to 
occupy first those large towns and important places 
which are under British rule exclusively. There 
will be less probability of meeting with any inter- 
ruption in one's labors. It is quite practicable to 
visit towns under native rule ; and perhaps circum- 
stances might occur which would make it appear 
advisable to reside at them. This would be the case, 
were any of their rulers to become Christians. But, 
at present, it might be attended with uncertainty as 
to being free from trouble, or rather, as to obtaining 
the consent of the Chiefs. At any rate, it would be 
attended with much delay in regard to getting suita- 
ble houses prepared, so that it does not seem expedi- 
ent that any of our brethren should attempt at once 
to take up a permanent residence at a native town. 

" Besides, great changes may be anticipated, and 
perhaps troublesome times, on the other side of the 
Sutlej ; for the health of the chief ruler, Ranjit 
Singh, is in a very precarious condition. Though he 
may live, for years, yet he might die any night. It 
seems hardly proper to think of forming any station 


on that side of the Sutlej until there is a better pros* 
pect of quietness and of a settled government. 

" We came very satisfactorily to the conclusion, 
that we should commence a mission in the Hill 
States as soon as practicable. We have felt ourselves 
justifiable in making preparation for a mission family 
to reside there, and have purchased a stone house 
at Sabathu for that purpose. This v/e thought it 
was expedient to do, because while it was offered 
at a low price, the opportunity might be lost, if 

" You will perceive that Lodiana and Sabathu do 
not afford sufficient work to employ all our brethren 
permanently. Shall they all go to those places until 
they learn the language, and then go wherever Provi- 
dence directs ? Or would it be advisable for some of 
them to stay at Furrukhabad, or at some other place 
in the Doab, or level country, betv>^een the Ganges 
and the Jumna ? The latter is a region of country 
teeming with large towns and multitudes of people, 
for whose souls no man seems to care. It affords a 
greater prospect of concentrated exertions than do 
the regions to the northwest. It is entirely under 
British rule. It is easy of access by water from 
Calcutta, and would afford a ' half-way house' to the 
missionary brethren going on to the northwest. We 
want some missionary families in Calcutta, where 
our missionaries would land at first ) who would find 
as much work to do as they could accomplish ; who 
would meet with a most cordial reception from all the 
Calcutta brethren ; and who could relieve those bre- 



thren from commissions and cares which even now 
must be troublesome, though they are too kind to 
admit that they are so, but which, in future times, 
will be too numerous for them to think of attending 
to, when we have some fifty or a hundred missionaries 
in the upper regions of India. And then we want 
many American missionaries throughout Upper 
India ; of whom some could be stationed at Furruk- 
habad. There is a large unoccupied field in the Doab. 
Would it be desirable for two of our brethren to stay 
somewhere in it ? If it is not so for them, I trust 
you will soon be able to send others to take posses- 
sion of that fertile and populous country. 

" If they should go on to Lodiana, they, or future 
missionaries, might prepare themselves for going 
either to Cashmere or to Afghanistan, by learning 
the language of those countries from the natives, of 
whom there are many at Lodiana. 

During the spring of 1834, through the kind 
attention of Captain Wade, a portion of land wag 
allotted to our mission, which is in many respects 
very eligible, being about a quarter of a mile east of 
the city, and containing a tract of rather low ground, 
suitable for a garden ; as well as some high ground, 
suitable, and sufficiently large, for two or three 
houses. You would have thought the higher point 
of it a dreary, barren spot, if you could have seen it 
three or four months ago. It was just like the 
sandy-looking plains east and south of it. Yet it has 
always been cultivated ; and we may hope that it 
will hereafter possess a peculiar interest, as the seat 


LODIAnA to NEW Tf^ORii.' 

of extensive moral influence, and as the honae of two 
or three famiUes of the Lord's beloved people. It is 
intended that Lodiana shall become a walled town, 
and measures are in progress which seem to promise 
that the native city shall extend eastward quite to 
our ground. According to the plan of the city, a 
single street separates our little tract from the wall of 
the great city that is to be." 

The time had now come when I should direct my 
way homewards. After obtaining the best medical 
advice, and after much and anxious consideration^ 
and many conferences with my missionary com- 
panions, it was agreed by us all that a return to the 
United States was decidedly advisable, as the only 
means of recovering from the combined influence of 
the climate and of chronic disease. Deeply as I 
regretted to leave a post of so much importance, and 
a mission whose brief history had been so fraught 
with deeply painful, but also with most encouraging 
interest, and sorrowful as we all were at the neces- 
sity of parting, the path of duty appeared plain, and 
we acquiesced in what we believed to be the will of 
God. For myself, I consented the more readily to 
the measure, as I hoped to be so much benefited by 
the voyage, and by spending a year or two in a colder 
climate, as to return to the sphere of duty I was now 
about to leave — a hope I have since been constrained 
to abandon. 

Arrangements were soon made for a journey to 
Calcutta by dak, and on the 21st of January, I bade 



farewell to many kind English friends at Lodiana, to 
the scholars of the High School, and to rny mis- 
sionary brethren ; we commended each other to God, 
and to the word of his grace, and then parted, they 
to pursue their missionary labors, and I to make 
another long and solitary journey. I reached Cal- 
cutta on the 11th of February, after four or five 
days' delay on the road. 

1 was anxious to proceed on the voyage w^ithout 
delay, as the hot season was now drawing nigh ; but 
I met with unexpected and trying disappointments 
about getting a passage directly to the United States, 
and was at length obliged to decide on returning by 
way of England. This delay, however, proved the 
means of my having a glad meeting with the third 
company of missionaries from the Society, who 
arrived on the 2d of April, in the Charles Wharton, 
from Philadelphia, after a safe and pleasant voyage. 
This party consisted of the Rev. Messrs. J. R. 
Campbell and J. McEwen, and Messrs. J. M. Jamie- 
son, W. S. Rogers, and J. Porter, with their wives. 
The three last mentioned gentlemen had completed 
their studies at college, and they have since been 
ordained as ministers of the gospel. We all regarded 
it as a favorable ordering of Providence, that I should 
have been delayed until they arrived. I was able to 
be of use to them in making their arrangements for 
proceeding up the country ; and it was highly grati- 
fying to see so many chosen men and women thus 
lar on their way to a scene of labor, where, two 
years before., everything appeared so discouraging. 



I left India with a lighter heart, after spending a few 
days w^th these missionary friends. 

Of the voyage to England, and thence to New 
York, I need not give an extended account. Both 
Were unusually long and severe, but we were favored 
with all necessary comfort. After stopping a week 
at the Cape of Good Hope, our ship arrived at Lon- 
don about the end of September, and embarking at 
Portsmouth early in November, I had the great satis- 
faction, on the 28th of December, of stepping on the 
shore of my native country, all the more beloved as 
I had seen the more of foreign lands. 




Summary statement. — Station at Labor. — Synod of North India. 

With the last chapter, my book might end ; but as 
I venture to hope that this mission will be regarded 
with interest by the reader, I shall add some account 
of its present condition. A full narrative of its sub- 
sequent history would occupy a volume ; which, if 
Providence favors the design, I may hereafter endea- 
vor to wTite, in compliance with the wishes of 
friends often expressed. The information presented 
in this chapter will answer the end of showing that 
the good hand of God has been upon this missionary 

There are now ten stations in Upper India, occu- 
pied by about sixty American and Hindu laborers, 
under the patronage of the Presbyterian Church. 
Of these laborers, twenty -four are ordained ministers 
of the Gospel, two of whom are of native birth ; the 
others are the wives of the missionaries, and twenty 
native catechists, teachers, and readers, not includ- 
ing teachers who are not converts, of whom a con- 
siderable number are employed in the schools. 
Churches have been organized at most of the sta- 


tions, with wiiich about two hundred natives are 
connected as communicants. An extensive system 
of schools is in operation, embracing about twelve 
hundred children and youths, who are receiving the 
benefits of education under a happy Christian influ- 

The Press is doing its great work in the hands of 
the missionaries, there being two printing and bind- 
ing establishments, at which the Sacred Scriptures 
and Christian Books are printed. Nearly ninety 
millions of pages have been printed and circulated 
since these presses were set up ; embracing works 
varying in size from four pages to upwards of six 
hundred pages, in the Hindui, Hindustani, Gurmukhi, 
Persian, and English languages. This department 
of the missionary work is under efficient manage- 
ment, and its influence is becoming increasingly 

The stations are classed under three Missions, 
which take their names from prominent cities within 
their bounds. Each of these missions is distinct 
from the others, and they make their reports directly 
to the Board of Foreign Missions, whose seat of 
operations is in New York. 

The Lodiana Mission has stations at Lodiana, 
Saharunpur, Sabathu, Ambala, Jalandar, and Labor. 
Sabathu is a town in the Himmalaya mountains, 
and is noticed above on page 232. Two of the sta- 
tions are in the Panjab, at Jalandar and Labor, places 
mentioned in the preceding narrative. The station 
at Labor is one of so much interest as to deserve a 



somewhat extended notice. This I take from the 
" Annual Report of the Board of Foreign Missions 
to the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, 
May, 1850:" 

" One of the most important events in the history 
of this mission during the past year, is the occupa- 
tion of Labor, the capital of the Panjab, as a 
missionary station. By the appointment of their 
brethren, the Rev. Messrs Newton and Forman 
tool< up their abode at that city in November. 

"Nearly seventeen years ago, the first mission- 
aries of the Presbyterian Church in India were led, 
under the manifest guidance of Providence, to select 
the north-western provinces of that country as their 
genera] field of labor. Their choice had a special 
reference to the Panjab, then an independent king- 
dom, and to the Sikhs, a distinct people in their 
religion, though in other respects not differing greatly 
from their Hindu countrymen. The missionaries 
formed their first station at Lodiana, on the British 
side of the Sutlej, the south-eastern boundary of that 
kingdom. One of their number was permitted to 
go over, and to spy out the country, penetrating as 
far as Labor, where its famous but despotic ruler, 
RanjU Singh, held his court. He brought back a 
good report of many things, but the time did not 
appear to have come for attempting to form a per- 
manent missionary establishment, nor even for mak- 
ing flying missionary tours, among the four millions 
of its inhabitants. 

" At Lodiana, every facility was enjoyed by the 


missionaries for making all needful preparation to go 
up and take possession of the land, whenever the 
leader of Israel should call them to cross over the 
dividing river. There the Gurmukhi language, the 
dialect of the Sikhs, was studied, and the religion 
with which it is so closely aUied. A dictionary, a 
grammar, a geography, a number of religious tracts, 
and more than all, a revised and to some extent a 
new translation of the Holy Scriptures, were prepared ; 
and most of them have been printed at the Lodiana 
press, though some of them are now in the course of 
publication. Two or three of the missionaries have 
learned the Gurmukhi, and one of them is probably 
the best scholar in that language now living ; while 
all the missionaries, from their location, have enjoyed 
peculiar advantages for becoming acquainted with 
the other dialects spoken in that part of India, and 
with the general state of society, religion, &c., 
amongst the people. It is confidently believed that 
no other Missionary Institution is so completely fur- 
nished for the great work of evangelizing the Panjab, 
and certainly no other has had this object so long 
and so constantly in view, as the Missionary Board 
of our Church. 

"If the door of entrance into the Panjab had been 
open seventeen years ago, the Church was not then 
prepared to take possession of that good land. Now 
her work of preparation has been completed, and in 
the wonderful working of Divine Providence the door 
is widely open. The death of Ranjit Singh was 
celebrated with the immolation of eleven females on 
his funeral pile. It was an act characteristic of the 



reign of Satan, but it was one of the signs of his 
falhng kingdom. Ranjit left no successor capable 
of wielding his iron sceptre. The country soon fell 
into a state of anarchy, under the leaders of the army 
which he had trained ; and they were so elated with 
mistaken views of their own power, as to resolve on 
the overthrow of the British dominion in India. For 
this purpose, unprovoked, they crossed the Sutlej, 
into British territory. Defeated, they withdrew, and 
were allowed to retain most of their possessions, 
only a narrow tract on the south-eastern side of the 
Panjab being appropriated by the British to defray 
the expenses of the war. In this region, known as 
the Jalandar Doab, a missionary station was formed, 
in connexion with the station at Lodiana, three 
years ago. A second time, equally without provoca- 
tion, these chiefs and their fierce troops arrayed 
themselves against their former foe. The conflict 
between the Sikh and British armies was terrible, 
and the issue for a time doubtful ; but the end was 
the prostration of the Sikh power, and the annexa- 
tion of the whole Panjab to the Anglo-Indian empire 
— a measure hailed with satisfaction by the greater 
part of the inhabitants of that long oppressed land. 
The former native rule was a lawless military des- 
potism ; the present is a government of law, in the 
hands of a Christian nation. And as the result of 
these great changes in the political condition of the 
Panjab, changes which the Christian must recognise 
as permitted by Providence for wise and holy pur- 
poses, the whole of that interesting country is now 


open to the missionary, and two of our brethren are 
pursuing their work in its chief city. 

" Their position is one of commanding importance, 
with reference to the Panjab itself and its energetic 
people, and also with reference to other countries on 
its borders, where the light of the Gospel does not 
yet shine. Our mission, at such a post, ought to be 
a strong one. It should have the usual departments 
of missionary labor, and these should be amply sus- 
tained with men and funds. Above all, it should be 
borne, on the prayers of God's people, before the 
throne of grace. 

" The Committee have considered it expedient to 
state the history and claims of this new station at 
some length. They would only add the expression of 
their gratification at learning that the missionaries 
received a cordial welcome from the English resi- 
dents at Labor." 

The Furrukhabad Mission has stations at Futteh- 
gurh, Mynpurie, and Agra. The Allahabad Mission 
has but one station, at the city of Allahabad. 

The classification of the stations as Missions is 
made chiefly for the convenience of the missionaries, 
in the transaction of their financial and other busi- 
ness matters. A classification of a different nature, 
is that which groups the missionaries and their con- 
verts under the ecclesiastical system of the Church, 
with which they account it their happiness to be 
connected. Three Presbyteries* have been consti- 

* Besides these, the missionaries stationed at Saharunpur, who are 
connected ecclesiastically with the Reformed Presbyterian Church, 



tuted by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church, which are known by the same names and 
embrace the same ministers and churches as the 
Missions, with the exception stated in the note 
below. These Presbyteries form the Synod of 
North India. 

The sessions of this venerable Court of the Church 
must be expected to exert a happy influence on the 
missionary work in Upper India. It is thus referred 
to in the Annual Report of the Board for this year : 

" In the preceding narrative, references have been 
made incidentally to the second meeting of the 
Synod of North India, which held its sessions at Agra, 
in December, 1848 

" The missionary brethren themselves speak of the 
Synodical meeting as an occasion of no ordinary 
interest, and as subserving important objects. In 
the Report of the Allahabad Mission, after mention- 
ing that the ruling elder, Babu John Harry, since 
licensed to preach, accompanied the missionaries to 
the meeting of Synod, ' especially because we required 
his assistance in the peculiar work before the Synod,' 
the brethren proceed : 

" * The Synod held thirteen Sessions — an opening 
one, and twelve serious days' work. We were 
mostly engaged in a careful and detailed revision of 
the translation of the Confession of Faith and 
Shorter Catechism in Urdu. The former had been 

have been organized as a Presbytery. Their missionary relation is 
with the Board, as well as with their own Church, and it has always 
been a pleasant one to themselves and to their missionary brethren. 


prepared by the Lodiaiia Mission, and carefully 
revised by a member of our Presbytery ; and the 
latter was the work of our Presbytery altogether. 
A member of the Lodiana Presbytery had also 
assisted in finally revising and preparing these for 
presentation to the Synod. We ought also to men- 
tion that Mr. Wilson, of Agra, while with us at Alla- 
habad, assisted in the translation of the Shorter 
Catechism. The Synod carefully examined these 
works, freely discussed them, and adopted them at 
last, as the authoritative exposition of our faith in 
the Urdu language. They have since been printed 
at our Press, and are now ready for distribution. 

"'The members of the mission who were present at 
this meeting of our Synod, would record their senti- 
ments of gratitude that they were permitted to enjoy 
this privilege. It was a great privilege in this dry 
and thirsty land, to see one another; to feel the 
influence which a greater number always exerts ; to 
strengthen the bonds of brotherly aflfection, and to 
comfort and encourage each other's hearts. We 
could not but feel, also, the influence of the elevating 
sentiment that we were engaged in planting in this 
land that standard, around which the best of God's 
people in all ages have joyfully rallied, and that 
system of doctrine, which, though so often a sign 
spoken against, is still, instrumentally, the life of the 
Church, and presents the only form of Christianity 
that can ever give masculine character to the 
Church of India.' 

This meeting can hardly be viewed with less 


interest by the churches in this land, whose messen- 
gers were there assembled with the elders of 
churches planted among the heathen. Such a meet- 
ing marks almost an era in the missionary work of 
the Church, and deserves a much more extended 
notice than can be given to it by the Committee 
in this report. It is a point from which to look back 
and to look forward. But ^ few years have passed 
since the missionaries of our Church went to India. 
They were guided by the good hand of our God upon 
them to the Upper Provinces as their field of labor, 
provinces containing thirty millions of people. 
There they found a field in a great degree unoccu- 
pied by other missionary laborers. In the midst of 
personal discouragement and bereavements, they 
entered on their w^ork. Open doors were set before 
them. Reinforcements from the Church at home 
increased their number. The Gospel was preached. 
The Holy Scriptures were translated, printed, and 
spread abroad. Many of the heathen youth were 
brought into Christian schools. The blessing of 
God was not withholden from their labors. Con- 
verts were baptized. Churches were formed. Pres- 
byteries were organized. Candidates for the Gospel 
ministry were licensed and ordained. The Synod 
was constituted. Our ecclesiastical system is found 
to work happily on missionary ground. Questions, 
abroad, as well as at home, which give trouble to 
some missionary bodies, are quietly and satisfac- 
torily settled under our well known rules. God is 
pleased to put honor on sound doctrine, and this our 




brethren preach. The Church will view with plea- 
sure the care bestowed by her servants on the Hin- 
dustani Translation of her venerable Confession of 
Faith. It is a great matter to have such a work 
performed under the sanction of one of her own 
Synods. In future ages, this Confession may be 
referred to with gratitude by greater numbers of 
Christians than now praise God for that of West- 

" On the whole there has been progress — gradual, 
steady, and substantial. This has not been on a 
large scale, in the view of sense ;'but it is really 
great in the eye of faith, which can see ' the king- 
dom of God,' even when it ' cometh not with obser- 
vation.' The churches are small ; the candidates, 
few : the native catechists, licentiate preachers, and 
ordained ministers, but a little band ; but it is of the 
Lord's doinsj that there are any ! It is a more sig- 
nal display of Divine power, speaking after the man- 
ner of men, to rescue a few souls at first from the 
power of Satan, and to plant a few churches at first 
in a land of spiritual darkness and death, than it will 
be to increase those few disciples and churches to 
an exceedingly great and glorious host. This brief 
review of the past, therefore, should encourage the 
Church to expect great things in the time to come. 
The foundations of a s^reat work are laid, and some 
living stones are now in the walls of the spiritual 
temple. In the Lord's time, the headstone thereof 
shall be brought forth, with shoutings, crying grace, 
grace unto it." 





The north-western provinces not occupied with Missionary institu- 
tions — Urgent wants of adult Heathens — Encouragement of Chris- 
tian effort — India open for Missionary labors — An interior movement 
now in progress — ■'The Hindus in a transition state ; shall they 
become Christians or Infidels ? — Religious movements en masse — 
The kind of men required as Missionaries. 

It certainly deserves our devout thanksgiving, that 
so large a mission establishment is now planted and 
exerting an effective influence where, a few years 
ago, there was but a solitary pioneer, or rather where 
but a year or two before, the wants and even the 
names of those provinces, and their millions of peo- 
ple, were little known to our churches. A beginning 
has been made, a number of faithful laborers are 
engaged in the Lord's work, schools have been 
formed, the Sacred Scriptures printed and circulated 
widely, churches and Presbyteries constituted, and 
the work of converting grace displayed, and still in 
progress ; this is surely the Lord's work, and it is 
marvellous in our eyes. We cannot but regard the 
past history of those missions as presenting a strong 
inducement to enlarged efforts, and as holding out 
good encouragement of final success. 



That success should be devoutly prayed for in 
these endeavors, no one can doubt, who considers 
how lamentable is the condition of men not enjoying 
the light of Revelation, and how far above all price 
are the benefits conferred on those who sincerely 
embrace the gospel of Jesus Christ. Every motive 
that induces Christians to set a high estimate on 
their religion, should persuade them to use all pro- 
per means to extend its blessings to those w^ho are 
destitute of them. Nor is this duty left to their 
choice. Its performance is made binding by the 
command of Christ. The generous promptings, 
however, of their benign faith, not less than the 
beautiful example of their blessed Lord, should con- 
strain them to offer a free and ready service on 
behalf of those who are represented in Sacred Scrip- 
ture, with touching simplicity, as " sitting in dark- 
ness and the shadow of death." 

The entire north-western part of India, above a 
line drawn between Benares and Allahabad, may be 
regarded as specially open to our missionaries. 
There are many important places below that line 
where they might be well employed, indeed where 
the services of missionaries are most urgently 
required ; and they would be made welcome by the 
missionaries of other branches of the Church of 
Christ, now employed in the lower provinces, their 
numbers and resources being altogether inadequate 
to the work in which they are engaged. But in 
the north and north-western parts of India, there are 
no other missionaries from the American Church, and 



but few from the English Societies. The entire 
number of European missionaries is probably under 
a dozen, nor is there a prospect of this number being 
much increased. There is ample room, therefore, 
for the employment of many more missionaries from 
this country. Those upper parts of India, from 
Allahabad to the Indus, and from the mountains so 
far westward as to include the Raj-put tribes, com- 
prise the provinces of Allahabad, Agra, and Delhi, 
part of Malwa, and the whole of Rajputana, the 
kingdom of Oude, the Protected Hill and Sikh States, 
and the entire kingdom of the Panjab, including 
Cashmere, containing in all a population of probably 
thirty millions. And besides these, the provinces of 
Scinde, on the lower waters of the Indus, the coun- 
tries of Beloochistan and Affghanistan, west of the 
Indus, and Thibet on the north-east, can all be 
reached from this part of India, more readily than 
from any other quarter. In all these countries there 
is no mission establishment whatever. 

One of the greatest objects of Christian missions 
is certainly that of preparing the natives for becom- 
ing themselves preachers of righteousness to their 
countrymen; yet we cannot doubt the extreme import- 
ance of all proper kinds of labor, that look to the con- 
version of adult heathens. These must be made by 
foreign missionaries, if our benevolence shall reach 
the generation now on the stage of life. In a few 
years more, they will go down to the land of silence, 
before the work can be completed of training up 
native youths, and sending them forth on this high 



errand of mercy to their fathers and older country- 
men. The Christians now living must put them- 
selves in communication with the heathens now 
living, and that chiefly by their direct efforts, if the 
latter shall be made to know the true God and 
eternal life, which is through his son Jesus Christ our 
Lord. And beyond all question, the followers of 
Christ are responsible, and will be held to a strict 
account in the great day, for the fulfilment of this 
duty, according to the measure of their means and 

If to any it should appear a hopeless work to 
preach Christ and him crucified to adult heathens, 
confirmed in evil habits, and surrounded with tem- 
poral interests altogether adverse to their believing 
on the Son of God, let it be remembered that there 
is the same encouragement now as in the first ages 
of the Church. A minister of the Gospel has the 
same reasons to expect the Divine blessing on his 
ministrations among the Hindus, that gave encou- 
ragement to the apostle Paul to preach in the city of 
Ephesus, or to the missionaries who first preached the 
gospel to the barbarous tribes of idolaters in Great 
Britain and other parts of Europe — our own fore- 
fathers. In both cases it is by the foolishness of 
preaching, that God is pleased to save them that 
believe. In both cases, it is the power of God that 
must overcome the otherwise insuperable difficulties, 
that would hinder and utterly prevent the conversion 
of any pagan, either in ancient or modern times. 
And that power shall not be withheld, when the fol- 



lowers of Christ sincerely seek its aid, and employ 
the appointed means through which that aid is given. 
On this principle rests the whole superstructure of 
Christian Missions. 

In India, the way is made ready for the employ- 
ment of these appointed means. That country, and 
its multitudes of inhabitants, are now under the con- 
trol of a Protestant government ; and Christian 
ministers, without receiving any special favor, which 
indeed they need not desire, are protected as citizens, 
and may spend their entire strength in the fulfilment 
of their holy vocation, no man hindering them, nor 
making them afraid. After learning the language, 
they may preach the gospel to the natives, not 
always in congregations statedly assembling in one 
* place of worship, but as opportunity offers, — in the 
midst of large crowds, or to a few villagers, gathered 
around the shady peepul tree, or to the solitary 
inquirer who comes like Nicodemus, at night, to 
their houses, to ask, how can these things be ? or in 
the midst of a school-room, day after day, to a num- 
ber of hopeful youth. They may translate the Sacred 
Scriptures, and place them in the hands of those 
who are able to read. They may teach those con- 
verts, w^ho possess suitable gifts, the w^ay of God more 
perfectly, and then send them forth in their Lords' 
name to teach others. Thus is there an open door set 
before the Church, by the good providence of God. 

Besides this outward door open, there is an inte- 
rior movement of most deep interest now in progress 
among the Hindus, which must not be overlooked. 



Various influences are at work undermining the 
existing fabric of superstition. The administration 
of the government by foreigners, who, while they 
protect all in their common rights, bestow special 
favor on no exclusive class, and grant no immunity 
in crime, not even to a brahman, though shielded by 
all the special enactments of the Shastras, has a 
silent influence on the minds of the people against 
their religion ; this influence may be almost unseen, 
but it is as steady and as mighty as the flowing of 
the tide on the ocean. The advance of knowledge, 
on common subjects, is not less directly hostile to 
the Hindu religion. The peculiar opinion, accord- 
ing to which their books on most branches of know- 
ledge are accounted sacred, has been already pointed 
out. And it leads to most important results. These 
books, at least many of them, are filled with the 
grossest error, not merely on religious subjects, but 
on common topics — such as the shape of the earth, the 
position of its mountains and rivers, the cause of eclip- 
ses, the influence of the planets on human affairs, the 
manner of curing diseases, &c. Their belief in the 
most absurd notions on these subjects, is based on 
the same authority which has peopled their heavens 
with millions of gods and goddesses, and ordained 
their priests and manifold ceremonial observances. 
Let them see that in the former things they have 
been altogether mistaken, and it will not be long 
before they discover the groundless claims of the lat- 
ter. Both stand on the same platform, and must 
stand or fall together. The former are now falling. 


European science and correct knowledge are sup- 
planting the fables of the East. Many of the more 
influential classes, and of those who will become 
influential, are now abandoning the silly legends of 
the Hindu Shastras, and their number is constantly 
increasing. Commonly, if not always, these Hindus 
abandon at the same time the religious faith of 
their country. For a while they may comply with 
its outward forms, yet will they stop in the midst of 
their prayers, to tell you that they are merely con- 
forming to what is customary. Indeed, to a great 
extent, the Hindu religion may now be characterized 
as a religion of usage, and not of reverence or feel- 
ing. It was never a religion of love, and therefore 
its hold on its votaries can be the more easily broken. 
Besides all this, multitudes of youth are now forming 
such habits of accurate mental study, of ascertain- 
ing truth by induction and severe reason, as would 
lead them to reject the visionary religious revela- 
tions of the Hindu sacred books, even were their 
instructions on profane topics less erroneous. In 
short the Hindus may be regarded as now in a 
transition state. They are leaving the false and 
dangerous moorings of Hinduism, and setting out on 
the tide of new opinions, impelled by a self-trusting 
and reckless spirit, without chart or pilot — where 
shall their voyage end ? Certain it is, that they will 
not continue pagans many generations longer ; shall 
they become sincere worshippers of the true God, or 
madly follow the vain imaginations of the natural 
mind into the heartless regions of scepticism ? This 




question can be answered satisfactorily, if the Church 
employ Christian agencies in a right spirit, and to a 
suitable extent. All these general influences, now 
gradually working such mighty changes, are but doing 
a part of her work. They are disabusing the minds of 
the people of error ; let the servants of the Church 
stand by and fill their minds with truth. Let them 
build up the walls of Zion among the Hindus, while 
the fortresses of the great adversary are falling in 

There is another view of India as a missionary 
field, which cannot be surveyed without inspiring the 
mind with hope, not unmingled with anxiety. So 
intimately bound together are the Hindus in their 
respective castes, and so terrible are the consequen- 
ces of losing one's place in the sect of which he is a 
member, that few have forsaken Hinduism. This is 
not strange ; the wonder is rather that so many have 
become Christians. These bonds of caste will keep 
men from embracing a different religion as indivi- 
duals, separately, but they will also lead to large 
masses of people making that change together. 
The motives which are sufficient to influence the 
mind of one man will, before they have led him to 
any final decision, have become the motives of hun- 
dreds more of the same sect ; they will then forsake 
their old religion together, and they will strengthen 
each other in their new faith. Years ago, reflecting 
observers predicted this result. And a striking exam- 
ple of the correctness of their opinions has been wit- 
nessed in Krishnagur, a district of Bengal, about 



sixty or seventy miles north of Calcutta. Large 
numbers of the Kurta Bhojas, one of the smaller 
sects, have been received into the Christian Church 
at that station, under the labors of the English Epis- 
copal Missionaries. This movement extended to 
thousands of that sect, while surrounding sects were 
hardly at all impressed. Thus it probably will be 
throughout India. Such is our hope. Our fear is, 
that when these movements shall take place, the 
Church may not be prepared, with her servants and 
their native co-laborers, to point the minds of the 
inquiring multitudes to the " Lamb of God that tak- 
eth away the sin of the world." What could the 
four missionary brethren and their two native assist- 
ants accomplish at Futtehgurh, if the people of Fur- 
rukhabad, a city a few miles distant, of more than 
one hundred thousand souls, should now arise en 
masse, renounce their idols, and seek a new religion ? 
It may be said that these changes cannot be expected 
until the means shall have been employed to produce 
them, and then those means shall serve to give them 
a safe direction. But may there not be light enough 
to show them their danger, and yet not enough to 
point out the way of escape ? Besides, this view 
only postpones the time of these great and general 
religious movements, the arrival of which every 
Christian should be anxious rather to hasten than 
retard. And moreover there are, as has been shown, 
causes now at work to produce these changes, 
though a large part of these causes are purely secu- 
lar ; and unless Christian efforts are combined with 



them, their result will prove anything else than favor- 
able to the religious benefit of the people. 

These considerations clearly show, that India is 
a most important sphere of missionary labor. " The 
harvest truly is plenteous, but the laborers are few." 

I shall only add, that the missionary field in Upper 
India was brought to the attention of that part of the 
Church by which these missions are supported, at the 
time that she was beginning to move forward as a 
distinct tribe in Israel in the missionary work. It is 
not presumptuous for us to believe that in this there 
was far more than a merely casual coincidence. Let 
those, who have "understanding of the times to 
know what Israel ought to do," consider to what im- 
portant results this connexion should lead. 

The question has been asked, what kind of men 
are needed for missionary service in India ? It is 
obvious that in so large a field of labor, there must 
be room for the employment of men of very different 
and unequal gifts. Among the apostles, the earliest 
missionaries, usefulness was not limited to the labors 
of the highly-gifted Paul; Thomas, a man of far 
less talent and learning, has left traces of his success 
in his Lord's work, in places further distant from 
Jerusalem than Paul ever travelled. 

While there is ample scope for the full employ- 
ment of talents of the highest order, men of moderate 
abilities should not be discouraged from entering on 
the missionary field in India. It is highly desirable, 
however, that our missionaries should be able. 



wise, learned, and practical men; the stronger 
in these respects they are, the better, if only they 
have such a religious character as shall guard them 
from self-confidence and other evils, to which gifted 
men of little grace are exposed. I would insist far 
more on matured and deep religious attainments than 
on talents and learning in a missionary. He should 
have such convictions of his own un worthiness, such 
views of his Lord's glory, and such desires for the 
salvation of the heathen, as would make him at once 
humble, zealous, patient, and laborious in his sacred 
calling. A self-willed man ought not to be a mis- 
sionary, especially if he is to be associated with 
others ; nor should one who desires to have the pre- 
eminence. Even in the Church at home, a man w^ho 
cannot bear contradiction without impatience, but 
must have his own way or none ; who is anxious to 
be known as the principal agent, and to have his own 
proceedings conspicuously set forth ; who can allow 
himself to speak harshly and contemptuously of his 
brethren ; who has a suspicious temper, readily takes 
offence, and is slow to forgive ; especially if he have 
more than common ability, or is supported by any- 
thing peculiar in his family connexions, or in his 
position in the community ; — such a man is sure to 
be both the cause and the occasion of trouble and 
dissension, though he is here surrounded by a thou- 
sand counteracting and regulating influences. * To 
make a minister of the gospel of such a man, is a 
very doubtful service to the Church of Christ ; to 
make a missionary of such a man would be a severe 



trial to those who might be compelled to associate 
with him, and would probably contribute little to the 
establishment of the gospel among the heathen. I 
am thankful that I have never met with such a mis- 
sionary ; and I have drawn the sketch only to pre- 
sent at one view various evil traits, which should be 
guarded against with all care. The seeds of these 
evils are found in the corrupt nature of man. Reli- 
gion alone can effectually restrain and correct them. 
Where missionaries are so few in number, so closely 
connected together, and so dependent on each other, 
there should be special care to exclude everything 
that would hinder their happiness or their usefulness. 
No one should expect special deference to be paid to 
his views ; every one should be willing to submit 
himself to his brethren in the Lord ; and all should 
aim to excel in humility of mind, in the study of 
whatsoever things are lovely, and in a sacred devo- 
tion to {he great object of their mission. Let a suf- 
ficient number of such missionaries be employed, and 
let the Church support them with her gifts and her 
prayers, and the time shall not be long distant when 
the praise of the most high God shall ascend from the 
millions of India. 





Referred to on pages 31, 63, and elsewhere. 

It is one of the wonderful things of Providence, 
that the milHons of India should be brought under 
the same government with the inhabitants of a small 
island on the opposite side of the globe. And it 
appears the more wonderful, when we recollect that 
two thousand years ago these islanders were a bar- 
barous people, while the Hindus were as civilized as 
they are at the present day. The history of these 
nations teaches that heathenism exerts no beneficial 
influence on the condition of its subjects, and that 
the Gospel is the best means of civilizing rude tribes 
and elevating them to the highest grade of national 
welfare. The design of God in permitting the sub- 
jection of the Hindus to the British government, 
we cannot doubt, is both wise and good. 

The Anglo-Indian government is now but a part 
of the government of Great Britain. The charter 
of the East India Company has been so modified, 
that all the proceedings of its officers and servants are 
under the supervision and control of the British par- 
liament. The policy of Great Britain, whether 
liberal or exclusive, is the policy of the government 



authorities in India. Happily I'or themselves and for 
a large portion of the human family, liberal views 
are generally prevalent among the British people. 

The conduct of many of the earlier European 
residents in India towards the natives was often 
unworthy of Christian and upright men. The means 
by which the power of the East India Company was 
sometimes established and extended, can by no means 
admit of justification, nor even of excuse. Of these 
things, no one can express approbation, any more 
than of too many things in the history of our con- 
nexion with the Indian tribes of this land. But for 
many years the Anglo-Indian government has been 
so conducted as to prove a great benefit to the 

We see proofs of this on every side. The su- 
premacy of the British has procured for the 
Hindus rulers who are friendly to the mass of the 
people, instead of oppressors who ruled over them 
with a rod of iron. It has obtained for them an 
upright administration of their affairs ; justice im- 
partially rendered to all, as far as the falsehood and 
deception of the native character will permit; trade 
and commerce unfettered by violent exactions ; pro- 
perty acquired openly and possessed without fear ; 
foreign capital and intelligence employed to develope 
the resources of the country, and to introduce the 
superior improvements of other lands; the resi- 
dence amongst them of many well informed and 
benevolent men, whose example and influence 
are favorable to everything that is good ; and above 



all, the means of grace appointed by God for their 
salvation. There are evils connected with a foreign 
government over the Hindus ; but the blessings are 
great and substantial. 

I have adverted, generally, in the preceding pages, 
to what has appeared to me the most serious of these 
evils — the constant drain of income from India to be 
spent in England ; connected with which is the 
almost universal return of the European rulers to 
their own country, after certain periods of service, on 
large retiring allowances. This involves some of 
the consequences which are attributed to the prac- 
tice of landlords living absent from their estates in 
Ireland and the West Indies. There may be other 
evils, and more easy to be removed. 

In judging of these things, we must keep in view 
the corrupt state of morals in a heathen land, and 
the almost universal ignorance of the inhabitants. 
These make it impossible to conduct the government 
agreeably to the views of popular power with which 
we are happily conversant ; and they form serious 
obstacles in the way of the administration of govern- 
ment of any kind. It is worthy of note, moreover, 
that the British rule in India has been steadily 
growing more favorable to the native inhabitants. 
The prohibition of the horrid practice of burning 
widows on the funeral pile of their husbands ; the 
suppression of Thuggism ; the withdrawal of patron- 
age from the heathen temples, are measures of the 
last few years ; and they are measures which will 
undoubtedly tend in many ways to promote the 



benefit, temporal and eternal, of the Hindu people. 
The abolition of vexatious and ruinous imposts on 
all kinds of internal traffic, a system derived from 
the former rulers of the country, and long retained 
by the British, was a measure of Lord William Ben- 
tinck's administration, which marked an era in the 
history of the Hindus. The increasing disposition 
to foster education, both in the English and the ver- 
nacular languages ; the employment of greater num- 
bers of the natives in stations of trust ; the patron- 
age of public works, especially of railroads, are 
instances of recent Anglo-Indian policy. Other 
things will follow\ The abolition of the salt-mono- 
poly would be a priceless boon to the poor Hindus. A 
much lower assessment on all lands capable of grow- 
ing the cotton plant, and the application of foreign 
capital to the improved cultivation of the indigenous 
plant — not the fruitless effort to naturalize our 
American plant — would lead to an immense supply 
of cotton, both for Asiatic and European markets. 
These and other measures are dictated by sound 
policy, which should seek to attach the natives of 
India to her foreign rulers by the ties of interest as 
well as of gratitude. 

The introduction of the English language among 
the Hindus, to some extent, follows in the train of 
British rule in India. This is a matter of no little 
moment, as it is closely connected with the subject 
of the education of the Hindus, — a matter often 
referred to in the preceding work. For many years 



various causes have been leading many of the natives, 
especially those of the better classes, to seek an 
acquaintance with our language. One of these causes 
is no longer in operation, at least not to the extent 
that it was some fifteen years ago-; yet its effects 
remain, and its direct influence is still partially felt, 
while it is itself such an instance as could hardly be 
found in any country but India ; I shall therefore 
describe it briefly. 

During Lord William Bentinck's administration, 
the question was discussed of making the English 
the language of business in the courts of justice, and 
eventually in the other departments of the govern- 
ment. Formerly the Persian was chiefly used in all 
government transactions, a language introduced by 
the Mohammedan rulers for their own convenience. 
It was a strange tongue to the great mass of the 
inhabitants. The British continued the use of the 
Persian, though it was now a strange tongue alike 
to the rulers and the ruled ! The Mohammedan 
conquerors cared nothing for the welfare of the Hin- 
dus, and compelled them to submit to the great evil 
of having their suits issued in a strange language, 
and to the manifold vexations, impositions and exac- 
tions, resulting from that procedure in a state of 
society so deeply corrupt. The English authorities, 
on the other hand, through an excessive dread of 
interfering with existing usages, subjected themselves 
to the necessity of learning a new language. Hence 
arose a necessity for interpreters, not for the natives 
only as under the Mohammedans, but in many cases 



for the English ruler also, whose knowledge of Persian 
would often be defective. A wide field of dishonest 
advantage was set before the unprincipled native 
law-agent, w^ho would not hesitate to receive bribes 
from both plaintiff and defendant, in order to make 
a favorable representation for each party to the 
judge. The most upright magistrate might easily 
do injustice, because not well qualified to decide on 
proceedings in a foreign language, nor to detect the 
misrepresentations of the wily agents around him. 

This state of things was felt to be a grievous burden. 
Its evils and inconveniences were so great, and so 
painfully felt by all, that some change was loudly 
called for. The subject was discussed in the news- 
papers, and made a matter of government inquiry 
and consideration. Many were anxious that the 
English should be substituted for the Persian. This 
would have placed the English ruler where the 
Mohammedan stood, and would have been much 
better than to continue the use of a language foreign 
both to the judge and the people. It was advocated, 
moreover, with zeal and ability on the ground of 
its happy influence in making our language the 
language of learning, and of intercourse among the 
higher circles of society. This change, however, 
was not finally made; though the Persian was 
abolished. The native dialects are becoming more 
commonly the language of business between the 
English and the Hindus. Other things being equal, 
a preference is given, in the appointment of natives 
to official stations, to those who understand the 



English language ; and this is understood to be the 
policy which the government will hereafter pursue. 

The agitation of this subject extended over a 
period of two or three years, and created among the 
natives a general impression that the English would 
take the place of the Persian language. They were 
too ignorant and too selfish to understand how their 
rulers could come to any other decision. This 
impression, doubtless, turned the attention of thou- 
sands to the study of the language ; and thousands 
more will pursue that study still, for its favorable 
bearing on their hope of gaining employment under 
the government. Besides these, many will study it 
to obtain the stations of servants in English families, 
clerks, copyists, factors, agents, in the transaction of 
business, &lc. Among the more respectable classes 
it is quite an object with many, to qualify themselves 
for holding free intercourse w^ith the officers of 
government and other European residents. Some 
may have been influenced, by perceiving that a 
knowledge of our language would give them import- 
ance in the eyes of their countrymen, connecting 
them, as it would be considered, with those who 
rule over the country ; and a few may have been 
induced to acquire it from their love of knowledge 
for its own sake. 

The result of all this, as will readily be perceived, 
is closely connected with the religious question of 
India. The native languages contain little valuable 
knowledge, and vast stores of error, and of the 
legends of idolatry. The English language contains, 



with much that is evil, all that is good. Studying it, 
thousands of influential native youth will abandon 
the religion of their fathers, perceiving that it is alto- 
gether irreconcilable with the simplest rudiments of 
correct knowledge. But will they become Christians ? 
Not necessarily. A large part of the influence that 
reaches the Hindu mind through the medium of our 
language has never received a Christian baptism. 
Many of these English ideas are engaged in demo- 
lishing the Hindu temple, but they do not build up 
the Christian church. Left to the guidance of their 
own depraved hearts, without any light from heaven 
to direct their minds, these Hindu English readers 
will become infidels, believers in no rehgion at all. 
Many of the natives, especially in the cities where 
Europeans reside, and natives whose English educa- 
tion gives them great influence with their country- 
men, are now of this character. In France, the 
dreadful effects of infidelity as to the Christian reli- 
gion were displayed at the close of the last century. 
There is too much reason to fear the eventual 
prevalence of a pagan infidelity in India. In any 
country infidelity is a miserable substitute for faith. 
Under its influence the human mind is empty of all 
elevating and inspiring views, the human heart is 
unrestrained, and the future is a dreary and dark 
waste. But these are matters of a negative kind. 
Would the effects of infidelity on human happiness 
be less disastrous in the east than in the west ? 
Would property and life be safer in Calcutta at the 



close of the nineteoiith century, than they were in 
Paris at the end of the eighteenth ? These are very 
grave questions, and hut one answer can be given 
to them. 

We cannot, therefore, estimate too highly the 
importance of those institutions, in which, together 
with our general knowledge, our holy religion is 
daily taught. Other kinds of missionary efforts are 
important. The preaching of the Gospel everywhere 
stands first in the order of Divinely appointed means 
- of grace ; but we must recollect that these schools 
are in a country where 12,000 missionaries, sent from 
Christian lands, were it possible to send so many, 
would supply only one to every 10,000 souls; and it 
is therefore essentially necessary to educate and pre- 
pare native preachers, in order to have the Gospel 
preached to every creature. These weighty con- 
siderations we must keep in view, when we attempt 
to estimate the importance of the mission schools of 

It would be interesting to view some other aspects 
of the introduction of our language into India. Will 
the native young men, for example, who, by their 
English education, are so much superior to their 
country-women, be contented to connect themselves 
in marriage with persons little suited to be their 
companions in ignorance, but with whom they can 
have no communion of mind with mind, after they 
have become themselves comparatively well-inform- 
ed ? What, in other words, will be the influence of 
this superior knowledge, even though but partially 



diffused, on the condition of the female sex ? ^ What 
will be its influence, again, on the occupations of 
the Hindus? And what its influence on the feelings 
with which they will regard their subjection to a 
foreign nation ? 

It is the Christian's happiness to know, that all the 
affairs of nations and men are under the wise and 
merciful providence of the God and Father of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, who will overrule 
and determine them, so as to fulfil his own purposes, 
and to promote his own glory. 




Referred to on page 49. 

The relation of missionaries to other foreigners in 
India may appear to some a matter of little moment ; 
but only to those who have not duly considered the 
duties, which grow out of circumstances materially 
different from those in which they have themselves 
been placed. Certain it is, that the Apostles adapted 
their conduct to the different classes of people 
amongst whom they fulfilled their ministry. 

Viewed with reference to our future usefulness, 
we regarded it as kindly ordered, that we should 
meet with no embarrassment as missionaries from our 
social position ; but on the contrary, that all our way 
should be marked with the favor of those who were 
able greatly to hinder or to advance our object. This, 
though not more than we were entitled to expect 
from our standing at home, as clergymen, was per- 
haps unusual in North India; and at any rate it was 
one of those things in which we thankfully acknow- 
ledged the favor of God, in prospering our way. 
In regard to this subject, it has seemed to me desir- 
able, that our missionaries among the Hindus should 



be known, in some sense, as a separate caste. 
They go to India as Missionaries, — neither as 
Churchmen nor as Dissenters, as those terms are 
technically used among English people ; though 
certainly Churchmen as members of the Church of 
Christ. Viewed socially, they should by no means 
be regarded as out of society, having the same social 
position with other clergymen in their own country ; 
and yet they should not be expected to comply with 
all the usages observed among Europeans in India. If 
they may be regarded as a separate people, respect- 
able for talents, well educated, intelligent, and devoted 
to the single object of converting the Hindus to 
Christ, then will they enjoy, I doubt not, the confi- 
dence and the co-operation of other foreigners in 
that country, to every needful extent. 

It is not only in social intercourse, however, that 
the position of missionaries should be considered. 
They have duties to perform, as for the time subjects 
of the government whose protection they enjoy. 
On this point I shall quote a part of the Instructions 
of the Executive Committee, addressed to the Rev. 
Messrs. Freeman, Scott, and Warren, in 1838, as 
exhibiting the principles recognised by the Board. 

" You will bear in mind, dear brethren, that you 
go to build up a kingdom that is not of this world. 
With the civil government of India, and all the secu- 
lar matters that may agitate any portion of its com- 
munity, as missionaries of the cross, you have nothing 
to do. As you will receive the protection of the 
laws, yield to the government a cheerful and peace- 



ful submission, and where it is required a cordial 
support. It may be that in the laws and regulations 
of the British authorities in India, and in their 
administration, some things may appear strange to 
vou, and some things objectionable and wrong. But 
there are several considerations worthy of regard 
here. First, you may not for a long time be com- 
petent judges of these matters. The condition of 
the United States and that of India are at this time 
very different. The degree of liberty, and the laws 
and usages to which you have been accustomed, 
may be very unsuitable for India ; and yet, having 
enjoyed, as your birthright, all the privileges of your 
own country, it would not be strange if you deemed 
them the best for every other people. Acrain, the 
legislation and the administration of the government 
of India are in the hands of able and enlightened 
men. Some of the first of British statesmen have 
been engaged in this service : among them are 
many who fear God, and w ho have devoted much of 
their time, and thought, and property, to advance 
the best interests of the people ; and you may safely 
leave to them what so properly belongs to them, 
without anxiety as to the result. — Finally, let us 
suppose, what is no doubt the case, that some of the 
laws and usages are wrong, and ought to be corrected. 
What other country is free from the same charge ? 
Certamlv not our own, notwiihstandino: the blessinors 
and privileges we enjoy. Evils often do exist in 
governments, requiring both time and the exercise 
»»f great wisdom for their correction, without pro- 



ducing greater evils. Leave all these matters, there- 
fore, as not belonging to you ; it is not to interfere 
with them that you are sent to India, but to preach 
the gospel to the heathen there, and to persuade 
them to be reconciled to God. It is the earnest 
desire of the Board that the Presbyterian Mission- 
aries in India may establish such a character as will 
insure to them not only protection, but also the con- 
fidence and esteem of those intrusted with the 
government. Let all your teaching, all your inter- 
course with the natives, all your schools, and every 
thing you print, be open at all times to the inspec- 
tion of the civil officers ; let it be seen that you 
attend only to your appropriate work, and soon you 
will convince all that you are indeed the missionaries 
of the Prince of Peace. These things are not 
written in distrust of you, or of the brethren in India, 
nor with any reference to the past history of that 
mission, — which, we are happy to acknowledge, has 
received the full protection, and shared largely in 
the kind and generous feelings of the Europeans 
who administer the authority of that country ; but 
we have noticed them as being of themselves impor- 
tant, and that there may be no mistake as to the 
principles by which we are governed." 





Lowrie, John Cameron 

Two years in upper India 

O in